前列腺癌:姜黄素可抑制转移 Prostate cancer: Curcumin curbs metastases

前列腺癌:姜黄素可抑制转移

Ludwig-Maximilians-UniversitätMünchen

几个世纪以来,粉状姜黄一直用于治疗骨关节炎和其他疾病。其活性成分姜黄素可抑制炎症。由慕尼黑Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität(LMU)研究小组领导的一项新研究表明,它也可以抑制癌症转移。

前列腺癌是西方世界最常见的恶性肿瘤之一,并且通常仅在其他器官中形成转移性肿瘤后才被诊断出来。在3%的病例中,这些癌症转移是致命的。由慕尼黑大学慕尼黑分校的博士Beatrice Bachmeier博士领导的一个研究小组一直在研究抑制癌症转移的天然产物的作用方式。该化合物存在于姜黄中,这种植物已经用于医药用途数千年,是咖喱的主要成分。

Bachmeier的研究重心是姜黄素,姜黄素是负责咖喱颜色的一种多酚。姜黄素具有良好的耐受性,因此原则上既适用于预防用途(一级预防),也适用于已经存在既定肿瘤的情况下癌症抑制转移(二级预防)。在之前的一项研究中,Bachmeier及其同事证明,该物质在晚期乳腺癌动物模型中统计学上显着降低了肺癌的转移。

减轻癌肿转移

这项新研究旨在研究姜黄素在预防前列腺癌转移中的功效,并确定该药物的作用机制。研究人员首先检查了前列腺癌细胞中异常调节的分子过程。乳腺癌和前列腺癌通常与潜伏或慢性炎症反应相关,并且在两种情况下,发现肿瘤细胞产生促炎免疫调节剂,包括细胞因子CXCL1和CXCL2。

研究人员继续表明,姜黄素可以特异性地降低这两种蛋白质的表达,而在小鼠模型中,这种效应与转移发生率的下降有关。 “由于姜黄素的作用,肿瘤细胞合成了少量促进转移的细胞因子,”Bachmeier说。 “因此,如我们之前所示,乳腺癌动物或前列腺癌,如我们的新研究所示,肺部转移形成的频率显着降低。”

姜黄素和化学预防

因此,Bachmeier认为,姜黄素可能有助于预防乳腺癌和前列腺癌 – 这两者都与炎症有关 – 并且可以降低其转移潜力。 “这并不意味着该化合物应被视为传统疗法的替代品。但是,它可以在一级预防中发挥积极作用 – 在肿瘤爆发之前 – 或有助于避免转移形成。在这种情况下事实上,这种物质的耐受性非常重要,因为人们可以安全地将其推荐给肿瘤风险增加的人。“

每天摄入高达8克的姜黄素被认为是安全的,其抗炎特性长期以来一直被用于传统的东方医学中。先前在印度的研究发现,姜黄素防糖尿病非常有效果。患有良性前列腺增生症(BHP)的男性是预防的一个可能的目标群体,具有乳腺癌家族史的女性也是如此。作为某些癌症疗法的补充剂,该药剂也可能是有价值的。无论如何,姜黄素的有益作用必须首先在对照临床试验中得到证实。 Bachmeier现在正计划对患有前列腺癌治疗的癌症患者进行此类试验。

Prostate cancer: Curcumin curbs metastases

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München

Powdered turmeric has been used for centuries to treat osteoarthritis and other illnesses. Its active ingredient, curcumin, inhibits inflammatory reactions. A new study led by a research team at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) in Munich now shows that it can also inhibit formation of metastases.

Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent malignancies in the Western world, and is often diagnosed only after metastatic tumors have formed in other organs. In three percent of cases, these metastases are lethal. A research team led by PD Dr. Beatrice Bachmeier at LMU Munich has been studying the mode of action of a natural product that inhibits the formation of metastases. The compound is found in turmeric, a plant that has been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years, and is a major ingredient of curry.

Bachmeier’s research centers on curcumin, the polyphenol responsible for the characteristic color of curry. Curcumin is well tolerated and is therefore, in principle, suitable both for prophylactic use (primary prevention) and also for the suppression of metastases in cases where an established tumor is already present (secondary prevention). In a previous study Bachmeier and her colleagues had demonstrated that the substance reduces statistically significantly the formation of lung metastases in an animal model of advanced breast cancer.

Mitigating metastasis

The new study was designed to investigate the efficacy of curcumin in the prevention of prostate cancer metastases, and to determine the agent’s mechanism of action. The researchers first examined the molecular processes that are abnormally regulated in prostate carcinoma cells. Breast and prostate cancers are often associated with latent or chronic inflammatory reactions, and in both cases, the tumor cells were found to produce pro-inflammatory immunomodulators including the cytokines CXCL1 und CXCL2.

The researchers went on to show that curcumin specifically decreases the expression of these two proteins, and in a mouse model, this effect correlated with a decline in the incidence of metastases. “Due to the action of curcumin, the tumor cells synthesize smaller amounts of cytokines that promote metastasis,” says Bachmeier. “As a consequence, the frequency of metastasis formation in the lungs is significantly reduced, in animals with breast cancer, as we showed previously, or carcinoma of the prostate, as demonstrated in our new study.”

Curcumin and chemoprevention

Bachmeier therefore believes that curcumin may be useful in the prevention of breast and prostate cancers – which are both linked to inflammation – and in reducing their metastatic potential. “This does not mean that the compound should be seen as a replacement for conventional therapies. However, it could play a positive role in primary prevention – before a full-blown tumor arises – or help to avert formation of metastases. In this context the fact that the substance is well tolerated is very important, because one can safely recommend it to individuals who have an increased tumor risk.”

A daily intake of up to 8g of curcumin is regarded as safe, and its anti-inflammatory properties have long been exploited in traditional oriental medicine. Men with benign hyperplasia of the prostate (BHP) are one possible target group for prophylaxis, as are women who have a family history of breast cancer. The agent might also be valuable as a supplement to certain cancer therapies. At all events, curcumin’s beneficial effects must first be confirmed in controlled clinical tests. Bachmeier is now planning such a trial in patients who suffer from therapy-resistant carcinoma of the prostate.

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