镁有助于糖尿病,胰岛素抵抗,血糖控制

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镁(magnesium)有助于糖尿病(diabetes) ,胰岛素抵抗(insulin resistance),血糖控制 (blood sugar control)

2型糖尿病(type 2 diabetes)是一种生活方式疾病,与前驱糖尿病 (pre-diabetes)一起影响估计有1亿美国人。科学家和政府机构都表示,这些情况与镁的缺乏有关。

镁缺乏在美国很常见,近一半的美国人缺镁。在70岁或70岁以上的成年人中,这种缺陷更为常见 – 其中80%。

在人体中,镁在300种生理功能中起作用。这种矿物质不仅可以帮助合成蛋白质,还可以代谢血糖,并平衡其他重要矿物质,如钾 (potassium),钠(sodium)和钙(calcium)。

镁缺乏的原因之一是土壤中镁的消耗。消化系统疾病和一些药物如利尿剂也可能成为吸收这种矿物质的障碍。

镁缺乏或低镁血症被定义为血镁水平低于1.8 mg / dL的人的病症。

缺镁的人可能会出现无数症状,包括虚弱 (weakness),疲劳(fatigue),心跳不规则(irregular heart-beat),肌肉痉挛 (muscle cramps),震颤(tremors),焦虑(anxiety)或失眠(insomnia)。其他症状如高血压()hypertension),偏头痛(migraine headaches)和复发性微生物感染(recurrent microbial infection)可能表明缺镁(magnesium deficiency)。

糖尿病患者缺镁的风险很高,因为胰岛素抵抗会影响这种矿物质从细胞到细胞的转运。当糖尿病患者使用某些药物导致尿液中矿物质流失时,风险可能更高。

低水平的镁与心脏病,骨质疏松症和糖尿病有关。除心脏病(heart disease),肾脏疾病(kidney disease),白内障(cataracts),截肢(amputations)外,糖尿病还可导致缺镁。

糖尿病需要服用镁补充剂,作为一项在以色列进行的一项研究,于2018年1月在Nutrients上发表。该研究表明,糖尿病患者每天服用250毫克元素镁,持续三个月,可改善血糖反应或降低胰岛素抵抗。

仅服用镁补充剂可使胰岛素敏感性提高10%,血糖降低37%。作为糖尿病长期状态的指标,镁补充剂将HbA1c水平降低至7.96至8.32。

另一项在埃及进行的研究于2017年3月在“医学”杂志上发表,显示1型糖尿病患者的血镁水平较低。

然后,每天服用300毫克镁的镁补充剂三个月的儿童将HbA1c从10.11减少到7.88。

人们可能不必服用镁补充剂来增加血镁。许多食物含有丰富的镁,包括菠菜和羽衣甘蓝,南瓜,葵花籽,鹰嘴豆,新鲜和干豆,全谷物。

健康的人也需要摄入足够的镁。美国国立卫生研究院建议男性每日摄入420毫克,女性摄入320毫克。

市场上有几种形式的镁。它们是柠檬酸镁,甘氨酸镁或苏糖酸镁。

Magnesium helps diabetes, insulin resistance, blood sugar control

Type 2 diabetes is a lifestyle disease which along with pre-diabetes affects an estimated 100 million Americans. Both scientists and government agencies say that these conditions are associated with the deficiency of magnesium.

Magnesium deficiency is common in the U.S. and nearly half of all Americans suffer magnesium deficiency. The deficiency is even more common among adults age 70 or old – 80% of them.

In human body, magnesium plays a role in 300 physiological functions. This mineral can not only help synthesize proteins, and metabolize blood sugar and balance levels of other important minerals such as potassium, sodium and calcium.

One of the reasons for magnesium deficiency is the depletion of magnesium in soil. A digestive disorder and some medications such as diuretics can also be an obstacle to the absorption of this mineral.

Magnesium deficiency, or hypomagnesemia, is defined as a condition in a person whose blood magnesium level falls under 1.8 mg/dL.

People with magnesium deficiency can experience a myriad of symptoms including weakness, fatigue, irregular heart-beat, muscle cramps, tremors, anxiety, or insomnia. Other symptoms such as hypertension, migraine headaches, and recurrent microbial infections may indicate magnesium deficiency.

Diabetics are at high risk of magnesium deficiency because insulin resistance affects transportation of this mineral from cells to cells. The risk can be even higher when diabetics use certain medications which cause loss of the mineral to the urine.

Low levels of magnesium are linked to heart disease and osteoporosis and diabetes. Diabetes can cause magnesium deficiency in addition to heart disease, kidney conditions, cataracts, amputations.

Diabetes need to take magnesium supplements, as a study conducted in Israel and published in Nutrients in January 2018. The study shows that diabetics taking 250 mg of elemental magnesium per day for three months improved glycemic response or reduce insulin resistance.

Simply taking magnesium supplements improved insulin sensitivity by 10% and lowered blood sugar by 37%. As an indicator of long term status of diabetes, magnesium supplementation reduces HbA1c levels to 7.96 to 8.32.

Another study conducted in Egypt and published in Medicine in March 2017 shows that chicken with type 1 diabetes had lower blood magnesium.

Then children taking magnesium supplement in a dose of 300 mg of magnesium per day for three months reduced HbA1c from 10.11 to 7.88.

One may not have to take magnesium supplements to boost blood magnesium. Many foods are found high in magnesium including spinach and kale, pumpkin, sunflower seeds, chickpeas, fresh and dry beans, whole grains.

Healthy people need an adequate intake of magnesium too. The U.S. National Institutes of Health recommends a daily intake of 420 mg for men and 320 mg for women.

A few forms of magnesium are available on the market. They are magnesium citrate, magnesium glycinate or magnesium threonate.

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