Fructose and glucose in high fructose corn syrup deliver a one-two punch to health 高果糖玉米糖浆中的果糖和葡萄糖影响健康

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News Release 17-Sep-2020

New study links combination of the two sugars in high fructose corn syrup to heart health risks

University of California – Davis

Research News

Consuming high fructose corn syrup appears to be as bad for your health as consuming sugar in the form of fructose alone, according to a new study from researchers at the University of California, Davis. The study reports health risks related to the type of sugar consumed, but also reveals novel risks when sugars are combined, which has important implications for dietary guidelines.

When it comes to health risks, sugar in the form of fructose is clearly the bad guy. This is because a majority of fructose consumed ends up in the liver. When there is too much fructose, the liver produces uric acid and fat in the form of triglycerides, which increase the risk of fatty liver, heart disease and gout. But lead investigator Kimber Stanhope, a researcher with the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, says the new data shows that we shouldn’t let glucose off the hook.

“It turns out that the combination of fructose and glucose found in high fructose corn syrup appears to be worse than fructose alone for some heart disease risk factors,” said Stanhope. “When we planned this study, we didn’t expect to find this.”

Research has shown that fructose compared with glucose increases risk factors for heart disease and diabetes. This led to an assumption that the glucose in the high fructose corn syrup is benign. The new study, published in Metabolism Journal, tested this assumption by examining differences in health risk factors based on sugar type. Participants consumed beverages containing fructose, glucose, high fructose corn syrup, or an aspartame control, and researchers analyzed their blood for known risk factors for heart disease and diabetes.

The researchers expected risk factors would be highest for fructose and lowest for glucose, with high fructose corn syrup somewhere in between. This is exactly what they saw for some of the risk factors. However, for others, including the risk factors many scientists believe are the most predictive for heart disease, the increases were highest for high fructose corn syrup due to an interaction of fructose and glucose.CONSUMER CHOICES AND DIETARY GUIDELINES

The results of the current study suggest that dietary guidelines and consumer choices should not be based on the assumption that all adverse effects from dietary sugars are due to fructose content.

“Our study shows that nutrition is more than looking at individual food components,” said first author Bettina Hieronimus with the Department of Child Nutrition at the Max-Rubner Institut in Karlsruhe, Germany. “To understand the way our food affects our bodies, we need to study diets as a whole.”

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Other authors include Valentina Medici, Nancy Keim, Peter Havel and Andrew Bremer with UC Davis. Funding support comes from the National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, the National Center for Research Resources, the German Research Foundation, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Aging, United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service and the UC Office of the President.

根据加州大学戴维斯分校的研究人员的一项新研究,食用高果糖玉米糖浆似乎对健康有害,与仅食用果糖形式的糖一样。这项研究报告了与食用糖的类型有关的健康风险,但也揭示了将糖混合使用时的新风险,这对饮食指南具有重要意义。

当谈到健康风险时,果糖形式的糖显然是坏人。这是因为消耗的大部分果糖最终会进入肝脏。果糖过多时,肝脏会产生甘油三酸酯形式的尿酸和脂肪,从而增加患脂肪肝,心脏病和痛风的风险。但是加州大学戴维斯分校兽医学院的研究员,首席研究员金伯·斯坦霍普说,新数据表明,我们不应该放弃葡萄糖。

Stanhope说:“事实证明,对于某些心脏病风险因素而言,高果糖玉米糖浆中发现的果糖和葡萄糖的组合要比仅果糖差。” “当我们计划这项研究时,我们没想到会发现它。”

研究表明,与葡萄糖相比,果糖增加了心脏病和糖尿病的危险因素。这导致了一个假设,即高果糖玉米糖浆中的葡萄糖是良性的。这项新的研究发表在《新陈代谢杂志》上,通过检查基于糖类型的健康风险因素的差异来检验这一假设。参与者喝了含果糖,葡萄糖,高果糖玉米糖浆或阿斯巴甜对照品的饮料,研究人员分析了他们的血液中已知的心脏病和糖尿病危险因素。

研究人员预计果糖的风险因素最高,而葡萄糖的风险因素最低,果糖玉米糖浆介于两者之间。这正是他们对某些风险因素所见。但是,对于其他因素,包括许多科学家认为最能预测心脏病的危险因素,由于果糖和葡萄糖的相互作用,高果糖玉米糖浆的增幅最高。

当前研究的结果表明,饮食指南和消费者选择不应基于以下假设:饮食糖的所有不良影响均归因于果糖含量。

“我们的研究表明,营养不仅仅是查看单个食物的成分,”德国卡尔斯鲁厄马克斯-鲁伯纳研究所儿童营养系的第一作者贝蒂娜·希罗尼莫斯说。 “要了解食物对人体的影响,我们需要整体研究饮食。”

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