为了从植物性饮食中获得心脏益处,请避免食用垃圾食品 To reap heart benefits of a plant-based diet, avoid junk food

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News Release 18-Mar-2020

Plant-based diet found to reduce cardiovascular risk, but only if foods are healthful

American College of Cardiology

Plant-based diets are becoming more popular in many areas of the world, but the health benefits of this dietary pattern may depend largely on the specific foods consumed. A new study being presented at the American College of Cardiology’s Annual Scientific Session Together with World Congress of Cardiology (ACC.20/WCC) suggests that people following a plant-based diet who frequently consumed less-healthful foods like sweets, refined grains and juice showed no heart health benefit compared with those who did not eat a plant-based diet.

“Based on these results, it seems that simply following a plant-based or vegetarian diet is not enough to reduce cardiovascular disease risk,” said Demosthenes Panagiotakos, PhD, professor of biostatistics, research methods and epidemiology at Harokopio University of Athens, Greece and the study’s lead author. “It is also important to focus on specific, healthful plant-based food groups to see a benefit in terms of reducing cardiovascular disease.”

Researchers tracked eating behavior and the development of heart disease among more than 2,000 Greek adults over a 10-year period, beginning in 2002. Participants were asked to complete a detailed food frequency survey at the time of enrollment, after five years and after 10 years.

At the end of the study period, researchers analyzed the relationship between diet and the development of cardiovascular disease using a dietary index that divided participants into three groups based on the number of animal-based foods (which included meats as well as animal-derived products such as eggs and dairy) they consumed per day. Overall, men eating fewer animal-based foods were 25% less likely to develop heart disease compared to men eating more animal-based foods. The same overall trend was seen in women, but the relationship was less strong, with an overall risk reduction of about 11% among women eating the fewest animal-based foods.

Even though the difference in cardiovascular disease risk was significant between these groups, the overall difference in consumption of animal-based foods was relatively small. Those following a more plant-based diet consumed, on average, three animal-based foods daily while those following a less plant-based diet consumed five.

“These findings highlight that even a small reduction in the daily consumption of animal-based products–principally the less healthy foods, such as processed meat products–accompanied by an increase in healthy plant-based foods may contribute to better cardiovascular health,” Panagiotakos said.

Focusing in on participants who followed a more plant-based diet, researchers then categorized each participant’s diet as either healthful (reflecting increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, legumes, oils and tea or coffee) or unhealthful (reflecting increased consumption of juices,

sweetened beverages, refined grains, potatoes and sweets). Only participants following a healthful plant-based diet had a significant reduction in cardiovascular risk compared to those who ate more animal-based products.

Differences in eating patterns–and associated cardiovascular risk reduction–were also observed between women and men. In general, men ate about three times per day while women tended to snack more, eating four to five times daily. At the same time, women showed a more dramatic increase in heart disease risk when eating an unhealthful plant-based diet and a more dramatic reduction in risk when eating a healthful plant-based diet compared to men who fell into the same two categories. This suggests that snacking on healthful foods can be beneficial while snacking on unhealthful foods can bring higher risks, Panagiotakos said.

The study was limited by its reliance on questionnaires to track participants’ diets. However, the findings bolster evidence for the heart health benefits of a plant-based diet and could help inform future dietary guidance for prevention of cardiovascular disease.

“In the future, I believe it will be useful if cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines offer clearer and specific nutrition suggestions, in terms of the types of foods that are recommended and the portions that should be consumed,” Panagiotakos said.

This study received funding from the Hellenic Cardiology Society, Hellenic Atherosclerosis Society and the pharmaceutical industry.

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ACC.20/WCC will take place March 28-30, bringing together cardiologists and cardiovascular specialists from around the world to share the newest discoveries in treatment and prevention. Follow @ACCinTouch, @ACCMediaCenter and #ACC20/#WCCardio for the latest news from the meeting.

The American College of Cardiology envisions a world where innovation and knowledge optimize cardiovascular care and outcomes. As the professional home for the entire cardiovascular care team, the mission of the College and its 54,000 members is to transform cardiovascular care and to improve heart health. The ACC bestows credentials upon cardiovascular professionals who meet stringent qualifications and leads in the formation of health policy, standards and guidelines. The College also provides professional medical education, disseminates cardiovascular research through its world-renowned JACC Journals, operates national registries to measure and improve care and offers cardiovascular accreditation to hospitals and institutions. For more, visit acc.org.

为了从植物性饮食中获得心脏益处,请避免食用垃圾食品

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为了从植物性饮食中获得心脏益处,请避免食用垃圾食品

发现以植物为基础的饮食可降低心血管疾病的风险,但前提是食物有益健康

美国心脏病学院

植物性饮食在世界许多地区变得越来越流行,但是这种饮食方式的健康益处可能在很大程度上取决于所食用的特定食物。与美国心脏病学会(ACC.20 / WCC)一起在美国心脏病学会年度科学会议上发表的一项新研究表明,遵循植物性饮食的人经常食用不健康的食物,如甜食,精制谷物和果汁与那些不吃植物性饮食的人相比,对心脏健康没有好处。

“根据这些结果,似乎仅吃植物性食物或素食就不足以减少心血管疾病的风险,”希腊雅典哈罗科皮奥大学生物统计学,研究方法和流行病学教授德莫斯内斯·帕纳焦塔科斯博士说。该研究的主要作者。 “将重点放在特定的,健康的植物性食品上以降低心血管疾病的益处也很重要。”

从2002年开始,研究人员在10年内追踪了2,000多名希腊成年人的饮食行为和心脏病的发展。参与者被要求在入学时,五年后和十年后完成详细的食物频率调查。

在研究期末,研究人员使用饮食指数分析了饮食与心血管疾病发展之间的关系,该饮食指数根据动物性食品(包括肉类和动物源性产品)的数量将参与者分为三类例如鸡蛋和奶制品)。总体而言,与食用较多动物性食品的男性相比,食用较少动物性食品的男性患心脏病的可能性要低25%。妇女的总体趋势相同,但这种关系并不牢固,食用动物性食品最少的妇女的总体风险降低了约11%。

尽管这些人群之间心血管疾病风险的差异很大,但食用动物性食品的总体差异相对较小。那些以植物为基础的饮食的人平均每天食用三种动物性食物,而那些以植物为基础的饮食的人则平均消费了五种。

“这些发现突出表明,即使每天少量减少动物性产品(主要是加工食品等不那么健康的食品)的食用,同时增加健康的植物性食品的摄入,也可能有助于改善心血管健康,帕纳焦塔科斯说。

然后,研究人员针对那些以植物性饮食为基础的参与者,将其饮食分类为健康(反映出增加食用水果,蔬菜,全谷类,坚果,豆类,油和茶或咖啡的摄入量)或不健康(反映出增加的食用量)果汁

加糖饮料,精制谷物,土豆和糖果)。与那些多吃动物性食品的参与者相比,只有遵循健康的植物性饮食的参与者的心血管风险显着降低。

男女之间也观察到饮食方式的差异以及相关的心血管风险的降低。通常,男人每天大约吃3次,而女人则倾向于吃更多的零食,每天吃4至5次。同时,与属于相同两类的男性相比,女性在食用不健康的植物性饮食时心脏病风险显着增加,而食用健康的植物性饮食时心脏病风险显着降低。 Panagiotakos说,这表明在健康食品上吃零食可能是有益的,而在不健康食品上吃零食可能带来更高的风险。

该研究由于依赖问卷来跟踪参与者的饮食而受到限制。但是,这些发现为基于植物的饮食对心脏健康有益的证据提供了支持,并可能有助于为预防心血管疾病的未来饮食指导提供依据。

帕纳焦塔科斯说:“将来,如果在建议的食物类型和应食用的部分方面,如果心血管疾病预防指南提供更明确和具体的营养建议,我相信这将是有用的。”

该研究获得了希腊心脏病学会,希腊动脉粥样硬化学会和制药行业的资助。

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