CU Cancer Center researcher reveals new effects of oxygen deprivation in cancer cells CU Cancer Center研究人員揭示了缺氧對癌症的新影響

News Release 31-Mar-2021

Editor’s note: Does oxygen help cancer growth? This question is subject to an ever-lasting debate. It has been observed in laboratory settings that cultured cancer cells do not grow well when oxygen is plenty in the environment. For that reason, when cancer cells are cultured, carbon dioxide should be provided to help cancer cells grow.

This study seems to suggest that the oxygen deprived environment can temporarily stop cancer cell growth. Is it possible that the impact of oxygen or oxygen deprivation on cancer cell growth may depend on the type of cancer cells? Or other cancer cell culturing conditions? Or even how much oxygen concentration in extracellular micro-environment? So there is no consensus on the role oxygen plays in cancer development.

A couple of things are clear. Cancer cells growth needs the formation of blood vessels without which cancer mass can not grow bigger than 1 mm. Oxygen can play a role in this vessel formation. However, high levels of oxygen can be toxic to certain species which are known to microbiologists. That is why clinically right now, some cancer patients seek to use oxygen to fight their cancer.

編者註:氧氣是否有助於癌症生長?這個問題一直在進行著永恆的辯論。在實驗室環境中已經觀察到,當環境中有大量氧氣時,培養的癌細胞不能很好地生長。因此,在培養癌細胞時,應提供二氧化碳以幫助癌細胞生長。

這項研究似乎表明,缺氧的環境可以暫時阻止癌細胞的生長。氧氣或氧氣剝奪對癌細胞生長的影響是否可能取決於癌細胞的類型?還是其他癌細胞培養條件?甚至細胞外微環境中的氧氣濃度是多少?因此,關於氧氣在癌症發展中的作用尚無共識。

有幾件事很清楚。癌細胞的生長需要血管的形成,沒有血管,癌細胞的體積就不能超過1毫米。氧氣可以在這种血管形成中起作用。但是, 微生物學家已知高濃度的氧氣可能對某些物種有毒。這就是為什麼現在臨床上一些癌症患者尋求使用氧氣對抗癌症的原因。

Joaquin Espinosa, PhD, and his team investigated the role of hypoxia-inducible factors in tumor growth and suppression

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus

Research News

IMAGE
IMAGE: Joaquin Espinosa, PhD view more  Credit: Joaquin Espinosa, PhD

A team of University of Colorado School of Medicine researchers recently published a paper offering new insight into the role that oxygen deprivation, or hypoxia, plays in cancer development. CU Cancer Center member Joaquin Espinosa, PhD, is the senior researcher on the paper, which he hopes will help lead to more targeted treatments for cancer. 

For their paper published this month in the journal Nature Communications, Espinosa and the rest of the team — Zdenek Andrysik, PhD; Heather Bender, PhD; and Matthew Galbraith, PhD — used state-of-the-art genomics technologies to map the response of cancer cells to hypoxia with unprecedented detail, leading to novel discoveries about how hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) affect cancer cells and tumor growth. 

The great hypoxia debate 

The cellular adaptation to hypoxia is one of the fundamental aspects of cancer biology, especially in solid tumors. 

“Most tumors cannot growth unless they figure out a way to induce formation of new blood vessels to supply them with oxygen and other nutrients,” Galbraith explains. “So, what happens inside of solid tumors is they undergo intermittent periods of low oxygen between rounds of new blood vessel formation.”  

Past research has primarily focused on the long-term effect of hypoxia on tumor growth, generally characterizing it as oncogenic, or cancer promoting. However, other studies indicated that the factors that sense hypoxia, known as hypoxia inducible factors, or HIFs, can act as suppressors of tumor growth in some settings. In order to advance the field beyond this controversy, Espinosa and colleagues investigated the immediate acute response to hypoxia.

“We employed a cutting-edge genomics technology that nobody had employed in this field before that allowed us to see what happens to cancer cells within minutes of depriving them of oxygen,” Espinosa says.  

This technology enabled them to identify hundreds of hypoxia-inducible genes activated shortly upon oxygen deprivation, the ‘first responders’ in this important cellular response. Then, they employed computational biology approaches on large, publicly available datasets to infer the function of these hypoxia-inducible genes on hundreds of cancer cell lines grown in the lab and hundreds of tumor samples from cancer patients.

What they found was that when a cell is deprived of oxygen, its first reaction is to stop growing in order to preserve its existing nutrients and oxygen. 

That means at this point, hypoxia causes a tumor-suppressive reaction, mostly by preventing synthesis of new proteins. It is only after longer periods of hypoxia that tumors start to grow and metastasize as the cells invade neighboring tissues in search of oxygen.   

“There’s been a lot of debate about whether these hypoxia-inducible factors promote tumor growth or prevent tumor growth,” Espinosa says.

“The conclusion we came to is that everyone was right to a degree. Hypoxia-inducible factors can suppress tumor growth by preventing protein synthesis early on, but they can also advance tumor growth at later stages by promoting the ability of cancer cells to invade neighboring tissues. It depends on when you’re looking at it.” 

Importantly, the mechanisms of tumor suppression and promotion elicited by HIFs are amenable to pharmacological intervention. Tumor suppression is mediated by inhibition of an enzyme known as mTOR, which in turn can be inhibited by available drugs often used in cancer therapies. “mTOR inhibitors could mimic the tumor suppressive effects of HIFs,” Galbraith explains.

The mechanism of tumor promotion, on the other hand, has to do with the cells’ need for oxygen after an extended period of hypoxia. Usually, our cells are held together and in place by a structure called the extracellular matrix. However, after being deprived of oxygen for a longer amount of time, the HIFs switch on a set of enzymes that can degrade the extracellular matrix, allowing the cancer cells to escape the oxygen-deprived tumor. This results in the cancer cells entering the bloodstream and spreading to previously healthy tissues. 

“These results emphasize the importance of developing inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible enzymes that degrade collagen and other components of the extracellular matrix,” Espinosa says.

A new map offers hope for targeted treatments 

Espinosa and his team hope that their research will guide the development of future therapies that can better target not only cancer cells themselves, but also target the right processes in cancer cells at the right times. Whereas our previous understanding may have led cancer researchers to try to shut down the hypoxia response altogether, the CU team’s research indicates that it may be preferable to target it only at certain times.  

“People have been trying to target the hypoxia-inducible factors with different therapeutics, but this research would suggest that you may want to exercise some caution about when you apply those therapeutics, given that the HIFs can be tumor suppressive in the early stages of hypoxia,” Galbraith says.  

“Since the hypoxic response can be tumor suppressive in some contexts and oncogenic in other contexts, it’s not a good idea to issue a blanket statement that we should always try to shut it down,” Espinosa adds. “Instead, we should be thinking about what aspect of the hypoxic response to target, and that’s the aspect where hypoxia drives invasion and metastasis.” 

The research is also groundbreaking in its detailed mapping of the hypoxic response in cancer cells, which Espinosa says was only possible using new technologies.  

“How do you make new discoveries?” Espinosa asks. “Well, you use new technologies and new instruments, and that’s where the Cancer Center is always very supportive, making sure that the Shared Resources have the latest instruments.” 

Espinosa expects to see follow-up studies from researchers using the map his team has created in the future.  

“I would say this is a definitive improvement in the mapping of the early events of hypoxia,” Espinosa says. “And the beauty of that is that once you have a good map of the land, a lot of people can use it.” 

###

$$$ 如果你愿意,你可以在这捐款支持我们。谢谢。$$$
$$$ If you would, you can make a donation here to support us. Thank you. $$$

19