Substances that can cause cancer | 致癌物质

Understanding cancer causing agents or carcinogens

Cancer causing agents can cause cancer but not necessarily.  The actuality of the carcinogensis not only depends on the carcinogenicity, exposure dose, and dosing rate, and the human condition when exposed. In many cases, exposed to carcinogens, the people do not get clinically significant cancer quickly.  It can take months or years to develop a cancer.  Blood cancer can develop faster than solid cancers.  Keep in mind though that just because a cancer is not diagnosed in you does not mean that you do not have the cancer.  Many micro cancer or tumor before they form into a sizable tumor mass exist without your notice.  People who care about their health and life should pay all their attention to avoid the potential risk.  How?  It is easy to remember that most of carcinogens are man-made.   So you should be careful about anything man-made.  They are not God-intended.  They are produced for money!

致癌剂可能会导致癌症,但不一定。 致癌性的真实性不仅取决于致癌性、暴露剂量和给药率,还取决于暴露时的人体状况。 在许多情况下,接触致癌物的人不会很快患上具有临床意义的癌症。 患上癌症可能需要数月或数年的时间。 血癌比实体癌发展得更快。 请记住,仅仅因为您没有诊断出癌症并不意味着您没有患上癌症。 许多微小的癌症或肿瘤在形成相当大的肿瘤块之前就存在,而您却没有注意到。 关心自己健康和生命的人应该全神贯注,避免潜在的风险。 如何? 很容易记住,大多数致癌物都是人造的。 所以你应该小心任何人造的东西。他们不是上帝的旨意。它们是为了钱而生产的!

Known human carcinogens 已知的人类致癌物

International Agency for Research on Cancer
Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans

国际癌症研究机构
第 1 组:对人类致癌

  • Acetaldehyde (from consuming alcoholic beverages)  Comment: This is a chemical that is very chemically active and can react with many types macro-molecules causing mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Alcohol is converted to this caricnogen in humans.  乙醛(来自饮用酒精饮料) 评论:这是一种化学活性很强的化学物质,可以与多种类型的大分子发生反应,导致诱变和致癌作用。 酒精会转化为这种化学物质。
  • Acheson process, occupational exposure associated with
  • Acid mists, strong inorganic
  • Aflatoxins Comment: This carcinogen is produced by molds in moldy grains such as peanuts and corns and wheat grains.  黄曲霉毒素 评论:这种致癌物是由发霉的谷物如花生、玉米和小麦谷物中的霉菌产生的。
  • Alcoholic beverages  含酒精的饮料
  • Aluminum production  铝生产
  • 4-Aminobiphenyl
  • Areca nut  槟榔
  • Aristolochic acid (and plants containing it)  马兜铃酸
  • Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds  砷和无机砷化合物
  • Asbestos (all forms) and mineral substances (such as talc or vermiculite) that contain asbestos.  Comment:  All old buildings in the developed countries have been polluted with this mineral which was used as an insulation material.  In the U.S., use asbestos was banned in 1978. Afterward, fiberglass replaces asbestos.  Unfortunately, fiberglass is another inorganic substance that may also potentially cause cancer.  石棉(所有形式)和含有石棉的矿物质(如滑石或蛭石)。 评论:发达国家的所有旧建筑都被这种用作绝缘材料的矿物污染。 在美国,1978 年禁止使用石棉。之后,玻璃纤维取代了石棉。 不幸的是,玻璃纤维是另一种也可能导致癌症的无机物质。
  • Auramine production
  • Azathioprine
  • Benzene.  Benzene can cause leukemia in children and adults.  Chicken are every sensitive to this chemical. Benzene is present in gasoline in high quantity. It can show up in paints and many types of solvents. 苯。 苯可导致儿童和成人白血病。 鸡肉对这种化学物质都很敏感。 苯大量存在于汽油中。 它可以出现在油漆和多种溶剂中。
  • Benzidine and dyes metabolized to benzidine
  • Benzo[a]pyrene.  This can show up in wood smoke.  苯并[a]芘。 这可以出现在木烟中。
  • Beryllium and beryllium compounds
  • Betel quid, with or without tobacco
  • Bis(chloromethyl)ether and chloromethyl methyl ether (technical-grade)
  • Busulfan
  • 1,3-Butadiene
  • Cadmium and cadmium compounds
  • Chlorambucil
  • Chlornaphazine
  • Chromium (VI) compounds
  • Clonorchis sinensis (infection with), also known as the Chinese liver fluke
  • Coal, indoor emissions from household combustion  煤炭,家庭燃烧产生的室内排放
  • Coal gasification
  • Coal-tar distillation
  • Coal-tar pitch
  • Coke production
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Cyclosporine (ciclosporin)
  • 1,2-Dichloropropane
  • Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
  • Engine exhaust, diesel
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (infection with)
  • Erionite
  • Estrogen-only menopausal therapy  仅使用雌激素的绝经期治疗
  • Estrogen-progestogen menopausal therapy (combined)  雌孕激素更年期治疗(联合)
  • Estrogen-progestogen oral contraceptives (combined) (Note: There is also convincing evidence in humans that these agents confer a protective effect against cancer in the endometrium and ovary)  雌激素-孕激素口服避孕药(复方)(注:人类也有令人信服的证据表明这些药物对子宫内膜和卵巢癌具有保护作用)
  • Ethanol in alcoholic beverages  酒精饮料中的乙醇
  • Ethylene oxide
  • Etoposide
  • Etoposide in combination with cisplatin and bleomycin  依托泊苷与顺铂和博来霉素联合使用。 这些是药物。
  • Firefighter (workplace exposure as a)  消防员(工作场所暴露为一)
  • Fission products, including strontium-90
  • Fluoro-edenite fibrous amphibole
  • Formaldehyde  甲醛  It can show up in paints and solvents.  它可以出现在油漆和溶剂中。
  • Haematite mining (underground)
  • Helicobacter pylori (infection with)
  • Hepatitis B virus (chronic infection with)
  • Hepatitis C virus (chronic infection with)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (infection with)
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 (infection with) (Note: The HPV types that have been classified as carcinogenic to humans can differ by an order of magnitude in risk for cervical cancer)
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1) (infection with)
  • Ionizing radiation (all types)  Most common rays people are exposed to is x-ray used in diagnosis  电离辐射(所有类型) 人们接触的最常见射线是用于诊断的 X 射线
  • Iron and steel founding (workplace exposure)
  • Isopropyl alcohol manufacture using strong acids
  • Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) (infection with)
  • Leather dust
  • Lindane
  • Magenta production
  • Melphalan
  • Methoxsalen (8-methoxypsoralen) plus ultraviolet A radiation, also known as PUVA
  • Methyl-CCNU
  • 4,4′-Methylenebis(chloroaniline) (MOCA)
  • Mineral oils, untreated or mildly treated
  • MOPP and other combined chemotherapy including alkylating agents
  • 2-Naphthylamine
  • Neutron radiation
  • Nickel compounds
  • N’-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)
  • Opisthorchis viverrini (infection with), also known as the Southeast Asian liver fluke
  • Opium consumption
  • Outdoor air pollution (and the particulate matter in it)
  • Painter (workplace exposure as a)
  • 3,4,5,3′,4′-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126)
  • 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
  • Pentachlorophenol
  • Phenacetin (and mixtures containing it)
  • Phosphorus-32, as phosphate
  • Plutonium
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxin-like, with a Toxicity Equivalency Factor according to WHO (PCBs 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169, 189)
  • Processed meat (consumption of)
  • Radioiodines, including iodine-131
  • Radionuclides, alpha-particle-emitting, internally deposited (Note: Specific radionuclides for which there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity to humans are also listed individually as Group 1 agents)
  • Radionuclides, beta-particle-emitting, internally deposited (Note: Specific radionuclides for which there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity to humans are also listed individually as Group 1 agents)
  • Radium-224 and its decay products
  • Radium-226 and its decay products
  • Radium-228 and its decay products
  • Radon-222 and its decay products
  • Rubber manufacturing industry
  • Salted fish (Chinese-style)
  • Schistosoma haematobium (infection with)
  • Semustine (methyl-CCNU)
  • Shale oils
  • Silica dust, crystalline, in the form of quartz or cristobalite
  • Solar radiation
  • Soot (as found in workplace exposure of chimney sweeps)
  • Sulfur mustard
  • Talc containing asbestiform fibres
  • Tamoxifen (Note: There is also conclusive evidence that tamoxifen reduces the risk of contralateral breast cancer in breast cancer patients)
  • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD); “dioxin”
  • Thiotepa
  • Thorium-232 and its decay products
  • Tobacco, smokeless
  • Tobacco smoke, secondhand
  • Tobacco smoking
  • ortho-Toluidine
  • Treosulfan
  • Trichloroethylene
  • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, including UVA, UVB, and UVC rays
  • Ultraviolet-emitting tanning devices
  • Vinyl chloride
  • Welding fumes
  • Wood dust
  • X- and Gamma-radiation

乙醛(来自饮用酒精饮料)
艾奇逊过程,与相关的职业暴露
酸雾,强无机
黄曲霉毒素
含酒精的饮料
铝生产
4-氨基联苯
槟榔
马兜铃酸(和含有它的植物)
砷和无机砷化合物
石棉(所有形式)和含有石棉的矿物质(如滑石或蛭石)
金胺生产
硫唑嘌呤

联苯胺和代谢成联苯胺的染料
苯并[a]芘
铍和铍化合物
槟榔,有或没有烟草
双(氯甲基)醚和氯甲基甲基醚(工业级)
白消安
1,3-丁二烯
镉及镉化合物
苯丁酸氮芥
氯萘
铬 (VI) 化合物
华支睾吸虫(感染),也称为中国肝吸虫
煤炭,家庭燃烧产生的室内排放
煤气化
煤焦油蒸馏
煤沥青
焦炭生产
环磷酰胺
环孢素(环孢素)
1,2-二氯丙烷
己烯雌酚 (DES)
发动机尾气,柴油
爱泼斯坦-巴尔病毒 (EBV)(感染)
毛沸石
仅使用雌激素的绝经期治疗
雌孕激素更年期治疗(联合)
雌激素-孕激素口服避孕药(复方)(注:人类也有令人信服的证据表明这些药物对子宫内膜和卵巢癌具有保护作用)
酒精饮料中的乙醇
环氧乙烷
依托泊苷
依托泊苷联合顺铂和博来霉素
消防员(工作场所暴露为一)
裂变产物,包括锶90
氟乙长石纤维闪石
甲醛
赤铁矿开采(地下)
幽门螺杆菌(感染)
乙型肝炎病毒(慢性感染)
丙型肝炎病毒(慢性感染)
人类免疫缺陷病毒 1 型 (HIV-1)(感染)
人乳头瘤病毒 (HPV) 类型 16、18、31、33、35、39、45、51、52、56、58、59(感染)(注:已被归类为人类致癌物的 HPV 类型可能不同宫颈癌风险的数量级)
人类 T 细胞嗜淋巴细胞病毒 I 型 (HTLV-1)(感染)
电离辐射(所有类型)
钢铁创始(职场曝光)
使用强酸制造异丙醇
卡波西肉瘤疱疹病毒 (KSHV),也称为人类疱疹病毒 8 (HHV-8)(感染)
皮尘
林丹
品红色生产
马法兰
甲氧沙林(8-甲氧基补骨脂素)加紫外线 A 辐射,也称为 PUVA
甲基-CCNU
4,4′-亚甲基双(氯苯胺) (MOCA)
矿物油,未经处理或轻度处理
MOPP 和其他联合化疗,包括烷化剂
2-萘胺
中子辐射
镍化合物
N’-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) 和 4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)
Opisthorchis viverrini(感染),也称为东南亚肝吸虫
鸦片消费
室外空气污染(以及其中的颗粒物)
画家(工作场所曝光为一)
3,4,5,3′,4′-五氯联苯 (PCB-126)
2,3,4,7,8-五氯二苯并呋喃
五氯苯酚
非那西丁(以及含有它的混合物)
Phosphorus-32,磷酸盐

多氯联苯 (PCBs),类二恶英,具有 WHO 规定的毒性当量因子(PCBs 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169, 189)
加工肉类(消费)
放射性碘,包括 iodine-131
放射性核素,发射 α 粒子,内部沉积(注:有充分证据表明对人类致癌的特定放射性核素也被单独列为第 1 组药剂)
放射性核素,发射 β 粒子,内部沉积(注:有充分证据表明对人类致癌的特定放射性核素也被单独列为第 1 组药剂)
镭224及其衰变产物
镭226及其衰变产物
镭228及其衰变产物
Radon-222 及其衰变产物
橡胶制造行业
咸鱼(中式)
血吸虫(感染)
司莫司汀(甲基-CCNU)
页岩油
石英或方石英形式的结晶二氧化硅粉尘
太阳辐射
烟灰(在工作场所暴露在烟囱清扫器中发现)
硫芥
含有石棉纤维的滑石
他莫昔芬(注:还有确凿的证据表明他莫昔芬可降低乳腺癌患者患对侧乳腺癌的风险)
2,3,7,8-四氯二苯并对二恶英(TCDD); “二恶英”
噻替帕
钍 232 及其衰变产物
烟草,无烟
二手烟
吸烟
邻甲苯胺

硫丹
三氯乙烯
紫外线 (UV) 辐射,包括 UVA、UVB 和 UVC 射线
紫外线晒黑设备
氯乙烯
焊接烟雾
木屑
X射线和伽马射线

National Toxicology Program 15th Report on Carcinogens
“Known to be human carcinogens”

国家毒理学计划第十五次致癌物报告
“已知是人类致癌物”

  • Aflatoxins
  • Alcoholic beverage consumption
  • 4-Aminobiphenyl
  • Analgesic mixtures containing phenacetin
  • Aristolochic acids
  • Arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds
  • Asbestos
  • Azathioprine
  • Benzene
  • Benzidine
  • Beryllium and beryllium compounds
  • Bis(chloromethyl) ether and technical-grade chloromethyl methyl ether
  • 1,3-Butadiene
  • 1,4-Butanediol dimethylsulfonate (also known as busulfan)
  • Cadmium and cadmium compounds
  • Chlorambucil
  • 1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea (MeCCNU)
  • Chromium hexavalent compounds
  • Coal tar pitches
  • Coal tars
  • Coke oven emissions
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Cyclosporin A
  • Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
  • Dyes metabolized to benzidine
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
  • Erionite
  • Estrogens, steroidal
  • Ethylene oxide
  • Formaldehyde
  • Helicobacter pylori (chronic infection)
  • Hepatitis B virus
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)
  • Human papilloma viruses (HPVs): some genital-mucosal types
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)
  • Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) (also known as human herpesvirus 8, or HHV-8)
  • Melphalan
  • Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV)
  • Methoxsalen with ultraviolet A therapy (PUVA)
  • Mineral oils (untreated and mildly treated)
  • Mustard gas
  • 2-Naphthylamine
  • Neutrons
  • Nickel compounds
  • Radon
  • Silica, crystalline (respirable size)
  • Solar radiation
  • Soots
  • Strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid
  • Sunlamps or sunbeds, exposure to
  • Tamoxifen
  • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD); “dioxin”
  • Thiotepa
  • Thorium dioxide
  • Tobacco smoke, environmental
  • Tobacco, smokeless
  • Tobacco smoking
  • o‑Toluidine
  • Trichloroethylene (TCE)
  • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, broad spectrum
  • Vinyl chloride
  • Wood dust
  • X-radiation and gamma radiation

黄曲霉毒素
酒精饮料消费
4-氨基联苯
含有非那西丁的镇痛混合物
马兜铃酸
砷和无机砷化合物
石棉
硫唑嘌呤

联苯胺
铍和铍化合物
双(氯甲基)醚和工业级氯甲基甲基醚
1,3-丁二烯
1,4-丁二醇二甲基磺酸盐(也称为白消安)
镉及镉化合物
苯丁酸氮芥
1-(2-氯乙基)-3-(4-甲基环己基)-1-亚硝基脲 (MeCCNU)
六价铬化合物
煤焦油沥青
煤焦油
焦炉排放
环磷酰胺
环孢素A
己烯雌酚 (DES)
代谢成联苯胺的染料
爱泼斯坦-巴尔病毒 (EBV)
毛沸石
雌激素类固醇
环氧乙烷
甲醛
幽门螺杆菌(慢性感染)
乙型肝炎病毒
丙型肝炎病毒
人类免疫缺陷病毒 1 型 (HIV-1)
人乳头瘤病毒 (HPV):一些生殖器粘膜类型
人类 T 细胞嗜淋巴细胞病毒 1 型 (HTLV-1)
卡波西肉瘤相关疱疹病毒 (KSHV)(也称为人类疱疹病毒 8 或 HHV-8)
马法兰
默克尔细胞多瘤病毒 (MCV)
甲氧沙林与紫外线 A 疗法 (PUVA)
矿物油(未经处理和轻度处理)
芥子气
2-萘胺
中子
镍化合物

二氧化硅,结晶(可吸入大小)
太阳辐射
煤烟
含有硫酸的强无机酸雾
太阳灯或日光浴床,暴露于
他莫昔芬
2,3,7,8-四氯二苯并-对-二恶英(TCDD); “二恶英”
噻替帕
二氧化钍
烟草烟雾,环境
烟草,无烟
吸烟
邻甲苯胺
三氯乙烯 (TCE)
紫外线 (UV) 辐射,广谱
氯乙烯
木屑
X 射线和伽马射线

Probable human carcinogens 可能的人类致癌物

International Agency for Research on Cancer
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans

国际癌症研究机构
2A组:可能对人类致癌

  • Acrolein
  • Acrylamide
  • Adriamycin (doxorubicin)
  • Androgenic (anabolic) steroids
  • Aniline and aniline hydrochloride
  • ortho-Anisidine and ortho-anisidine hydrochloride
  • Art glass, glass containers, and press ware (manufacture of)
  • Azacitidine
  • Biomass fuel (primarily wood), emissions from household combustion
  • Bitumens, occupational exposure to oxidized bitumens and their emissions during roofing
  • Bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU), also known as carmustine
  • Captafol
  • Carbon electrode manufacture
  • Chloral
  • Chloral hydrate
  • Chloramphenicol
  • alpha-Chlorinated toluenes (benzal chloride, benzotrichloride, benzyl chloride) and benzoyl chloride (combined exposures)
  • 1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU)
  • 4-Chloro-ortho-toluidine
  • Chlorozotocin
  • Cisplatin
  • Cobalt metal (without tungsten carbide or other metal alloys)
  • Cobalt metal with tungsten carbide
  • Creosotes
  • Cyclopenta[cd]pyrene
  • DDT (4,4′-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)
  • Diazinon
  • Dibenz[a,j]acridine
  • Dibenz[a,h]anthracene
  • Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene
  • Dichloromethane (methylene chloride)
  • Dieldrin, and aldrin metabolized to dieldrin
  • Diethyl sulfate
  • Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride
  • N,N-Dimethylformamide
  • 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine
  • Dimethyl sulfate
  • Epichlorohydrin
  • Ethyl carbamate (urethane)
  • Ethylene dibromide
  • N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea
  • Frying, emissions from high-temperature
  • Glycidol
  • Glycidyl methacrylate
  • Glyphosate
  • Hairdresser or barber (workplace exposure as)
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 68 (infection with)
  • Hydrazine
  • Indium phosphide
  • IQ (2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline)
  • Lead compounds, inorganic
  • Malaria (caused by infection with Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Malathion
  • 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole
  • Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV)
  • 5-Methoxypsoralen
  • Methyl methanesulfonate
  • N-Methyl-N´-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)
  • N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea
  • Night shift work
  • Nitrate or nitrite (ingested) under conditions that result in endogenous nitrosation
  • ortho-Nitroanisole
  • 6-Nitrochrysene
  • Nitrogen mustard
  • 1-Nitropyrene
  • N-Nitrosodiethylamine
  • N-Nitrosodimethylamine
  • 2-Nitrotoluene
  • Non-arsenical insecticides (workplace exposures in spraying and application of)
  • Petroleum refining (workplace exposures in)
  • Pioglitazone
  • Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs)
  • Procarbazine hydrochloride
  • 1,3-Propane sultone
  • Red meat (consumption of)
  • Shiftwork that involves circadian disruption
  • Silicon carbide whiskers
  • Soluble cobalt(II) salts
  • Styrene
  • Styrene-7,8-oxide
  • Teniposide
  • Tetrabromobisphenol A
  • 3,3′,4,4′-Tetrachloroazobenzene
  • Tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene)
  • Tetrafluoroethylene
  • 1,1,1-Trichloroethane
  • 1,2,3-Trichloropropane
  • Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate
  • Trivalent antimony
  • Very hot beverages (above 65 degrees Celsius)
  • Vinyl bromide (Note: For practical purposes, vinyl bromide should be considered to act similarly to the human carcinogen vinyl chloride.)
  • Vinyl fluoride (Note: For practical purposes, vinyl fluoride should be considered to act similarly to the human carcinogen vinyl chloride.)

丙烯醛
丙烯酰胺
阿霉素(阿霉素)
雄激素(合成代谢)类固醇
苯胺和苯胺盐酸盐
邻茴香胺和邻茴香胺盐酸盐
艺术玻璃、玻璃容器和压制器具(制造)
阿扎胞苷
生物质燃料(主要是木材)、家庭燃烧产生的排放
沥青、氧化沥青的职业暴露及其在屋顶期间的排放
双氯乙基亚硝基脲 (BCNU),也称为卡莫司汀
敌草胺
碳电极制造
氯醛
水合氯醛
氯霉素
α-氯化甲苯(苯甲醛、三氯化苯、苄基氯)和苯甲酰氯(联合暴露)
1-(2-氯乙基)-3-环己基-1-亚硝基脲 (CCNU)
4-氯邻甲苯胺
氯唑菌素
顺铂
钴金属(不含碳化钨或其他金属合金)
钴金属与碳化钨
杂酚油
环戊[cd]芘
DDT(4,4′-二氯二苯基三氯乙烷)
二嗪农
二苯并[a,j]吖啶
二苯并[a,h]蒽
二苯并[a,l]芘
二氯甲烷(二氯甲烷)
狄氏剂和艾氏剂代谢为狄氏剂
硫酸二乙酯
二甲基氨基甲酰氯
N,N-二甲基甲酰胺
1,2-二甲基肼
硫酸二甲酯
环氧氯丙烷
氨基甲酸乙酯(氨基甲酸乙酯)
二溴乙烷
N-乙基-N-亚硝基脲
油炸、高温排放
缩水甘油
甲基丙烯酸缩水甘油酯
草甘膦
美发师或理发师(工作场所暴露为)
人乳头瘤病毒 (HPV) 68 型(感染)

磷化铟
IQ(2-氨基-3-甲基咪唑并[4,5-f]喹啉)
铅化合物,无机
疟疾(由恶性疟原虫感染引起)
马拉硫磷
2-巯基苯并噻唑
默克尔细胞多瘤病毒 (MCV)
5-甲氧基补骨脂素
甲磺酸甲酯
N-甲基-N’-硝基-N-亚硝基胍 (MNNG)
N-甲基-N-亚硝基脲
夜班工作
在导致内源性亚硝化的条件下硝酸盐或亚硝酸盐(摄入)
邻硝基苯甲醚
6-硝基苯
氮芥
1-硝基芘
N-亚硝基二乙胺
N-亚硝基二甲胺
2-硝基甲苯
非砷杀虫剂(喷洒和应用中的工作场所暴露)
石油精炼(工作场所暴露在)
吡格列酮
多溴联苯 (PBB)
盐酸丙卡巴肼
1,3-丙磺酸内酯
红肉(食用)
涉及昼夜节律紊乱的轮班工作
碳化硅晶须
可溶性钴 (II) 盐
苯乙烯
苯乙烯-7,8-氧化物
替尼泊苷
四溴双酚A
3,3′,4,4′-四氯偶氮苯
四氯乙烯(全氯乙烯)
四氟乙烯
1,1,1-三氯乙烷
1,2,3-三氯丙烷
三(2,3-二溴丙基)磷酸酯
三价锑
非常热的饮料(高于 65 摄氏度)
溴乙烯(注意:出于实用目的,应考虑溴乙烯的作用类似于人类致癌物氯乙烯。)
氟乙烯(注意:出于实用目的,氟乙烯应被视为与人类致癌物质氯乙烯类似。)

National Toxicology Program 15th Report on Carcinogens
“Reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens”

国家毒理学计划第十五次致癌物报告
“合理预期是人类致癌物”

Read more in the NTP’s Report on Carcinogens at https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/whatwestudy/assessments/cancer/roc/index.html.

  • Acetaldehyde
  • 2-Acetylaminofluorene
  • Acrylamide
  • Acrylonitrile
  • Adriamycin (doxorubicin hydrochloride)
  • 2-Aminoanthraquinone
  • o-Aminoazotoluene
  • 1-Amino-2,4-dibromoanthraquinone
  • 1-Amino-2-methylanthraquinone
  • 2-Amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ)
  • 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx)
  • 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)
  • 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)
  • Amitrole
  • o-Anisidine and its hydrochloride
  • Antimony trioxide
  • Azacitidine (5-Azacytidine, 5-AzaC)
  • Basic Red 9 Monohydrochloride
  • Benz[a]anthracene
  • Benzo[b]fluoranthene
  • Benzo[j]fluoranthene
  • Benzo[k]fluoranthene
  • Benzo[a]pyrene
  • Benzotrichloride
  • 2, 2-bis-(bromoethyl)-1,3-propanediol (technical grade)
  • Bromochloroacetic acid (BCA)
  • Bromodichloroacetic acid (BDCA)
  • Bromodichloromethane
  • 1-Bromopropane
  • Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)
  • Captafol
  • Carbon tetrachloride
  • Ceramic fibers (respirable size)
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Chlorendic acid
  • Chlorinated paraffins (C12, 60% chlorine)
  • Chlorodibromoacetic acid (CDBA)
  • Chloroform
  • 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea
  • Bis(chloroethyl) nitrosourea
  • 3-Chloro-2-methylpropene
  • 4-Chloro-o-phenylenediamine
  • Chloroprene
  • p-Chloro-o-toluidine and p-chloro-o-toluidine hydrochloride
  • Chlorozotocin
  • Cisplatin
  • Cobalt and cobalt compounds that release cobalt ions in vivo
  • Cobalt-tungsten carbide: powders and hard metals
  • p-Cresidine
  • Cumene
  • Cupferron
  • Dacarbazine
  • Danthron (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone)
  • 2,4-Diaminoanisole sulfate
  • 2,4-Diaminotoluene
  • Diazoaminobenzene
  • Dibenz[a,h]acridine
  • Dibenz[a,j]acridine
  • Dibenz[a,h]anthracene
  • 7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole
  • Dibenzo[a,e]pyrene
  • Dibenzo[a,h]pyrene
  • Dibenzo[a,i]pyrene
  • Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene
  • Dibromoacetic acid (DBA)
  • 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
  • 1,2-Dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide)
  • 2,3-Dibromo-1-propanol
  • Dichloroacetic acid (DCA)
  • 1,4-Dichlorobenzene
  • 3,3′-Dichlorobenzidine and 3,3′-dichlorobenzidine dihydrochloride
  • Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)
  • 1,2-Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride)
  • Dichloromethane (methylene chloride)
  • 1,3-Dichloropropene (technical grade)
  • Diepoxybutane
  • Diesel exhaust particulates
  • Di(2-ethylyhexyl) phthalate
  • Diethyl sulfate
  • Diglycidyl resorcinol ether
  • 3,3′-Dimethoxybenzidine
  • 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene
  • 3,3′-Dimethylbenzidine
  • Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride
  • 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine
  • Dimethyl sulfate
  • Dimethylvinyl chloride
  • 1,6-Dinitropyrene
  • 1,8-Dinitropyrene
  • 1,4-Dioxane
  • Disperse blue 1
  • Dyes metabolized to 3,3′-dimethoxybenzidine
  • Dyes metabolized to 3,3′-dimethylbenzidine
  • Epichlorohydrin
  • Ethylene thiourea
  • Ethyl methanesulfonate
  • Furan
  • Glass wool fibers (inhalable)
  • Glycidol
  • Hexachlorobenzene
  • Hexachloroethane
  • Hexamethylphosphoramide
  • Hydrazine and hydrazine sulfate
  • Hydrazobenzene
  • Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene
  • Iron dextran complex
  • Isoprene
  • Kepone (chlordecone)
  • Lead and lead compounds
  • Lindane, hexachlorocyclohexane (technical grade), and other hexachlorocyclohexane isomers
  • 2-Methylaziridine (propyleneimine)
  • 5-Methylchrysene
  • 4,4′-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline)
  • 4-4′-Methylenebis(N,N-dimethyl)benzenamine
  • 4,4′-Methylenedianiline and its dihydrochloride salt
  • Methyleugenol
  • Methyl methanesulfonate
  • N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine
  • Metronidazole
  • Michler’s ketone [4,4′-(dimethylamino) benzophenone]
  • Mirex
  • Naphthalene
  • Nickel, metallic
  • Nitrilotriacetic acid
  • o-Nitroanisole
  • Nitrobenzene
  • 6-Nitrochrysene
  • Nitrofen (2,4-dichlorophenyl-p-nitrophenyl ether)
  • Nitrogen mustard hydrochloride
  • Nitromethane
  • 2-Nitropropane
  • 1-Nitropyrene
  • 4-Nitropyrene
  • N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine
  • N-nitrosodiethanolamine
  • N-nitrosodiethylamine
  • N-nitrosodimethylamine
  • N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine
  • N-nitroso-N-ethylurea
  • 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone
  • N-nitroso-N-methylurea
  • N-nitrosomethylvinylamine
  • N-nitrosomorpholine
  • N-nitrosonornicotine
  • N-nitrosopiperidine
  • N-nitrosopyrrolidine
  • N-nitrososarcosine
  • o-Nitrotoluene
  • Norethisterone
  • Ochratoxin A
  • 4,4′-Oxydianiline
  • Oxymetholone
  • Pentachlorophenol and by-products of its synthesis
  • Phenacetin
  • Phenazopyridine hydrochloride
  • Phenolphthalein
  • Phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride
  • Phenytoin and phenytoin sodium
  • Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
  • Procarbazine and its hydrochloride
  • Progesterone
  • 1,3-Propane sultone
  • beta-Propiolactone
  • Propylene oxide
  • Propylthiouracil
  • Reserpine
  • Riddelliine
  • Safrole
  • Selenium sulfide
  • Streptozotocin
  • Styrene
  • Styrene-7,8-oxide
  • Sulfallate
  • Tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene)
  • Tetrafluoroethylene
  • Tetranitromethane
  • Thioacetamide
  • 4,4′-Thiodianaline
  • Thiourea
  • Toluene diisocyanates
  • Toxaphene
  • Tribromoacetic acid (TBA)
  • 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol
  • 1,2,3-Trichloropropane
  • Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate
  • Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation
  • Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation
  • Ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation
  • Urethane
  • Vinyl bromide
  • 4-Vinyl-1-cyclohexene diepoxide
  • Vinyl fluoride

乙醛
2-乙酰氨基芴
丙烯酰胺
丙烯腈
阿霉素(盐酸阿霉素)
2-氨基蒽醌
邻氨基偶氮甲苯
1-氨基-2,4-二溴蒽醌
1-氨基-2-甲基蒽醌
2-氨基-3,4-二甲基咪唑并[4,5-f]喹啉 (MeIQ)
2-氨基-3,8-二甲基咪唑并[4,5-f]喹喔啉 (MeIQx)
2-氨基-3-甲基咪唑并[4,5-f]喹啉 (IQ)
2-氨基-1-甲基-6-苯基咪唑并[4,5-b]吡啶 (PhIP)
阿米特罗
邻茴香胺及其盐酸盐
三氧化二锑
阿扎胞苷(5-阿扎胞苷,5-AzaC)
碱性红9单盐酸盐
苯并[a]蒽
苯并[b]荧蒽
苯并[j]荧蒽
苯并[k]荧蒽
苯并[a]芘
苯并三氯
2, 2-双-(溴乙基)-1,3-丙二醇(工业级)
溴氯乙酸 (BCA)
溴二氯乙酸 (BDCA)
溴二氯甲烷
1-溴丙烷
丁基羟基茴香醚 (BHA)
敌草胺
四氯化碳
陶瓷纤维(可吸入尺寸)
氯霉素
氯霉素
氯化石蜡(C12,60% 氯)
氯二溴乙酸 (CDBA)
氯仿
1-(2-氯乙基)-3-环己基-1-亚硝基脲
双(氯乙基)亚硝基脲
3-氯-2-甲基丙烯
4-氯邻苯二胺
氯丁二烯
对氯邻甲苯胺和对氯邻甲苯胺盐酸盐
氯唑菌素
顺铂
在体内释放钴离子的钴和钴化合物
钴碳化钨:粉末和硬金属
对甲酚胺
异丙苯
Cupferron
达卡巴嗪
Danthron(1,8-二羟基蒽醌)
2,4-二氨基苯甲醚硫酸盐
2,4-二氨基甲苯
重氮氨基苯
二苯并[a,h]吖啶
二苯并[a,j]吖啶
二苯并[a,h]蒽
7H-二苯并[c,g]咔唑
二苯并[a,e]芘
二苯并[a,h]芘
二苯并[a,i]芘
二苯并[a,l]芘
二溴乙酸 (DBA)
1,2-二溴-3-氯丙烷
1,2-二溴乙烷(二溴乙烷)
2,3-二溴-1-丙醇
二氯乙酸 (DCA)
1,4-二氯苯
3,3′-二氯联苯胺和3,3′-二氯联苯胺二盐酸盐
二氯二苯基三氯乙烷 (DDT)
1,2-二氯乙烷(二氯乙烷)
二氯甲烷(二氯甲烷)
1,3-二氯丙烯(工业级)
二环氧丁烷
柴油机尾气颗粒物
邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯
硫酸二乙酯
二缩水甘油基间苯二酚醚
3,3′-二甲氧基联苯胺
4-二甲氨基偶氮苯
3,3′-二甲基联苯胺
二甲基氨基甲酰氯
1,1-二甲基肼
硫酸二甲酯
二甲基氯乙烯
1,6-二硝基芘
1,8-二硝基芘
1,4-二恶烷
分散蓝 1
代谢为 3,3′-二甲氧基联苯胺的染料
代谢为 3,3′-二甲基联苯胺的染料
环氧氯丙烷
乙烯硫脲
甲磺酸乙酯
呋喃
玻璃棉纤维(可吸入)
缩水甘油
六氯苯
六氯乙烷
六甲基磷酰胺
肼和硫酸肼
肼苯
茚并[1,2,3-cd]芘
铁葡聚糖复合物
异戊二烯
Kepone(十氯酮)
铅和铅化合物
林丹、六氯环己烷(工业级)和其他六氯环己烷异构体
2-甲基氮丙啶(丙烯亚胺)
5-甲基
4,4′-亚甲基双(2-氯苯胺)
4-4′-亚甲基双(N,N-二甲基)苯胺
4,4′-亚甲基二苯胺及其二盐酸盐
甲基丁香酚
甲磺酸甲酯
N-甲基-N’-硝基-N-亚硝基胍
甲硝唑
米氏酮 [4,4′-(二甲氨基) 二苯甲酮]
灭蚁灵

镍,金属
次氮基三乙酸
邻硝基苯甲醚
硝基苯
6-硝基苯
硝基苯醚(2,4-二氯苯基-对硝基苯醚)
氮芥盐酸盐
硝基甲烷
2-硝基丙烷
1-硝基芘
4-硝基芘
N-亚硝基二正丁胺
N-亚硝基二乙醇胺
N-亚硝基二乙胺
N-亚硝基二甲胺
N-亚硝基二正丙胺
N-亚硝基-N-乙基脲
4-(N-亚硝基甲氨基)-1-(3-吡啶基)-1-丁酮
N-亚硝基-N-甲基脲
N-亚硝基甲基乙烯基胺
N-亚硝基吗啉
N-亚硝基降烟碱
N-亚硝基哌啶
N-亚硝基吡咯烷
N-亚硝基肌氨酸
邻硝基甲苯
炔诺酮
赭曲霉毒素A
4,4′-二苯胺
羟甲烯龙
五氯苯酚及其合成副产物
非那西丁
非那吡啶盐酸盐
酚酞
苯氧苯甲胺盐酸盐
苯妥英钠和苯妥英钠
多溴联苯 (PBB)
多氯联苯 (PCB)
多环芳烃 (PAH)
丙卡巴肼及其盐酸盐
黄体酮
1,3-丙磺酸内酯
β-丙内酯
环氧丙烷
丙基硫氧嘧啶
利血平
谜题
黄樟素
硫化硒
链脲佐菌素
苯乙烯
苯乙烯-7,8-氧化物
硫酸盐
四氯乙烯(全氯乙烯)
四氟乙烯
四硝基甲烷
硫代乙酰胺
4,4′-硫代苯胺
硫脲
甲苯二异氰酸酯
毒杀芬
三溴乙酸 (TBA)
2,4,6-三氯苯酚
1,2,3-三氯丙烷
三(2,3-二溴丙基)磷酸酯
紫外线 A (UVA) 辐射
紫外线 B (UVB) 辐射
紫外线 C (UVC) 辐射
聚氨酯
溴化乙烯
4-乙烯基-1-环己烯二环氧化物
氟乙烯

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