High fructose diet can worsen the severity of covid 19 in men | 高果糖飲食會加重男性 COVID 19 的嚴重程度

. 2016 Apr 27;17(2):1470320316642915.

doi: 10.1177/1470320316642915. Print Apr-Jun 2016.

Fructose-rich diet induces gender-specific changes in expression of the renin-angiotensin system in rat heart and upregulates the ACE/AT1R axis in the male rat aorta


Free PMC article


Introduction: The cardiovascular renin-angiotensin system (RAS) could be affected by gender and dietary regime. We hypothesized that male rats will be more susceptible to activation of RAS in the heart and aorta, as a response to a fructose-rich diet (FRD).

Materials and methods: Both male and female Wistar rats were given a 10% (w/v) fructose solution for 9 weeks. We measured the biochemical parameters, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate. We used Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to quantify protein and gene expression.

Results: In the male rats, the FRD elevated BP and expression of cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), while the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin II Type 2 receptor (AT2R) were significantly decreased. In female rats, there were no changes in cardiac RAS expression due to FRD. Furthermore, the ACE/AT1R axis was overexpressed in the FRD male rats’ aortae, while only AT1R was upregulated in the FRD female rats’ aortae. ACE2 expression remained unchanged in the aortae of both genders receiving the FRD.

Conclusions: The FRD induced gender-specific changes in the expression of the RAS in the heart and aortae of male rats. Further investigations are required in order to get a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms of gender-specific fructose-induced cardiovascular pathologies.

Keywords: Angiotensin-converting enzyme; angiotensin receptor; aorta; diet; fructose; gender differences; heart; protein expression; rat; renin–angiotensin system.

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of conflicting interests: The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

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