使用植物性和纯素饮食可以增加胆碱水平过低的风险 Suggested move to plant-based diets risks worsening brain health nutrient deficiency

营养师警告: 英国未能推荐或监测饮食中的胆碱水平

为了有益于地球,转向使用植物性和纯素饮食的势头是值得称道的。但是一位预防与健康营养学家在期刊BMJ营养上警告说使用植物性和纯素饮食可以使得一个已经很少摄入对大脑健康有益的必需营养素胆碱的风险恶化。

更糟糕的是,英国政府未能推荐或监测这种营养素的饮食水平 – 胆碱 – 主要存在于动物性食物中,营养和生物医学科学咨询专家Emma Derbyshire博士如是说。Derbyshire博士营养洞察的一个营养专家。

胆碱是一种必需的膳食营养素,但肝脏自身产生的量不足以满足人体的需要。

胆碱对大脑健康至关重要,特别是在胎儿发育过程中。 Derbyshire博士写道,它还影响肝功能,缺乏与血脂代谢异常以及过多的自由基细胞损伤有关。

膳食胆碱的主要来源是牛肉,鸡蛋,乳制品,鱼类和鸡肉,其中含有较低水平的坚果,豆类和十字花科蔬菜,如西兰花。

1998年,美国医学研究所认识到胆碱的重要性,建议每日最低摄入量。这些范围从女性425毫克/天到男性550毫克/天,孕妇和哺乳期妇女分别为450毫克/天和550毫克/天,因为营养素在胎儿发育中起着关键作用。

2016年,欧洲食品安全局发布了类似的日常要求。然而,北美,澳大利亚和欧洲的全国膳食调查表明,平均而言,习惯性胆碱摄入量低于这些建议。

“这是……考虑到目前的趋势似乎是减少肉类和增加植物性食物的饮食,” 德比郡博士说。

她赞扬第一份报告(EAT-Lancet)根据促进环境可持续性编制健康食品计划,但表示限制摄入全脂奶,鸡蛋和动物蛋白可能会影响胆碱的摄入量。

她无法理解为什么胆碱不具备英国膳食指导或国家人口监测数据。

“鉴于胆碱的重要生理作用和某些健康声明的授权,在英国长期忽视胆碱的原因值得怀疑,”她写道。 “胆碱目前被排除在英国食品成分数据库,主要膳食调查和饮食指南之外,”她补充说。

她建议,现在可能是英国政府独立的营养科学咨询委员会扭转这种状况的时候了,特别是鉴于越来越多的证据表明胆碱对人类健康的重要性以及对地球粮食生产可持续性日益增长的担忧。

“需要做更多的工作来教育医疗保健专业人士和消费者关于富含胆碱的饮食的重要性,以及如何实现这一目标,”她写道。

“如果没有以膳食来源本身所需的水平获得胆碱,那么就需要补充策略,特别是与生命周期的关键阶段有关,例如怀孕,当胆碱摄入量对婴儿发育至关重要时,”她总结道。

NEWS RELEASE 

Suggested move to plant-based diets risks worsening brain health nutrient deficiency

And UK failing to recommend or monitor dietary levels of choline, warns nutritionist

BMJ

The momentum behind a move to plant-based and vegan diets for the good of the planet is commendable, but risks worsening an already low intake of an essential nutrient involved in brain health, warns a nutritionist in the online journal BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health.

To make matters worse, the UK government has failed to recommend or monitor dietary levels of this nutrient–choline–found predominantly in animal foods, says Dr Emma Derbyshire, of Nutritional Insight, a consultancy specialising in nutrition and biomedical science.

Choline is an essential dietary nutrient, but the amount produced by the liver is not enough to meet the requirements of the human body.

Choline is critical to brain health, particularly during fetal development. It also influences liver function, with shortfalls linked to irregularities in blood fat metabolism as well as excess free radical cellular damage, writes Dr Derbyshire.

The primary sources of dietary choline are found in beef, eggs, dairy products, fish, and chicken, with much lower levels found in nuts, beans, and cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli.

In 1998, recognising the importance of choline, the US Institute of Medicine recommended minimum daily intakes. These range from 425 mg/day for women to 550 mg/day for men, and 450 mg/day and 550 mg/day for pregnant and breastfeeding women, respectively, because of the critical role the nutrient has in fetal development.

In 2016, the European Food Safety Authority published similar daily requirements. Yet national dietary surveys in North America, Australia, and Europe show that habitual choline intake, on average, falls short of these recommendations.

“This is….concerning given that current trends appear to be towards meat reduction and plant-based diets,” says Dr Derbyshire.

She commends the first report (EAT-Lancet) to compile a healthy food plan based on promoting environmental sustainability, but suggests that the restricted intakes of whole milk, eggs and animal protein it recommends could affect choline intake.

And she is at a loss to understand why choline does not feature in UK dietary guidance or national population monitoring data.

“Given the important physiological roles of choline and authorisation of certain health claims, it is questionable why choline has been overlooked for so long in the UK,” she writes. “Choline is presently excluded from UK food composition databases, major dietary surveys, and dietary guidelines,” she adds.

It may be time for the UK government’s independent Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition to reverse this, she suggests, particularly given the mounting evidence on the importance of choline to human health and growing concerns about the sustainability of the planet’s food production.

“More needs to be done to educate healthcare professionals and consumers about the importance of a choline-rich diet, and how to achieve this,” she writes.

“If choline is not obtained in the levels needed from dietary sources per se then supplementation strategies will be required, especially in relation to key stages of the life cycle, such as pregnancy, when choline intakes are critical to infant development,” she concludes.

###

$$$ 如果你愿意,你可以在这捐款支持我们。谢谢。$$$
$$$ If you would, you can make a donation here to support us. Thank you. $$$

14

No Responses

Write a response