Nanomaterials used in food, nutritional supplements, and skin care products are harmful | 食品,营养补充剂,护肤品中用的纳米材料有害!

summary

The potential harm of nanoparticles has not received widespread attention from consumers. Environmental scientists have begun to worry about the pollution they may cause, although many products have already used various nanoparticles in large quantities. These nanomaterials can enter the body to pollute the human body and cause health problems.

The safety of nanoparticles has not been fully tested. They are allowed to be used in food, dietary supplements and personal care products because they are considered safe.

There is evidence that nanoparticles used in various products (including food, dietary supplements or vitamin preparations, cosmetics or personal care or beauty products) may cause damage to healthy cells and increase the risk of cancer and chronic health conditions.

If you want to avoid taking nanoparticles, you need to avoid processed foods, especially foods made from powdered raw materials or vitamin supplements. Food or vitamin powder can contain up to 2% nanoparticles. Anything white can contain nanoparticles. The milk you eat may contain nanomaterials. Many foods can contain nanoparticles. Women like to put sunscreen on their face to cover the sun. These sunscreens (sunscreens) contain a lot of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles can also be applied to the surface of foods, such as dried fruits. Usually, sun-dried preserves look brown or black. Food processors can use nanoparticles on the surface to lighten the color.

We reported earlier here that nanoparticles may cause damage to sperm, reduce male fertility (fertility) or induce genetic problems.

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles cause genetic toxicity and apoptosis of lung cancer cells

Inhaled nanoparticles such as titanium dioxide have been recognized by the World Health Organization as a human carcinogen, which may cause lung cancer. A new study in human experimental toxicology indirectly proves how inhaled nanoparticles can cause damage to lung cells, leading to the development of lung cancer.

Srivastava and colleagues of the Indian Institute of Toxicology, Lucknow, India tested titanium dioxide nanoparticles in lung cancer cells and found that the nanoparticles induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and genotoxicity.

Although the study was not conducted with healthy lung cells, studies have shown that titanium dioxide nanoparticles are likely to cause the same damage to healthy cells, leading to the development of lung cancer. Just like radiation can not only kill cancer cells, but also damage healthy cells, leading to mutagenesis (mutagenesis) and carcinogenesis (carcinogenesis).

The authors believe that lung cancer cells exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles at concentrations of 10 and 50 ug/mL for 6 to 24 hours showed a significant induction of oxidative stress, as shown by the determination of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, and reduced hydrogen peroxide Enzyme and glutathione activity.

In addition, titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce the formation of apoptotic bodies and micronuclei that express genotoxicity.

“A significant up-regulation of the expression of apoptosis markers such as P(53), P(21) and cleaved caspase-3 was observed, while the level of Bcl(2) was down-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels. The researchers stated in the report that exposure to TiO(2)NPs had no significant effect on the expression of Bax.

The researchers concluded: “The data show that nano-TiO(2) (titanium dioxide) induces oxidative stress, genotoxicity and apoptosis in the human lung cancer cell line A549. Our results also identify the changes induced by TiO(2)NP. In A549 cells.

It is estimated that 226,160 men and women in the United States will get lung cancer in 2012. The disease and its complications are expected to kill 160,340 patients in the same year and in the same country.

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are also commonly used in cosmetics, such as soap, food, and health products. Studies have shown that nanoparticles can travel in the body to major organs such as liver, lung, brain and kidney, and can enter healthy cells and damage DNA or cause mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Therefore, nanoparticles in food and cosmetics can cause health problems, just like inhaling nanoparticles.

Nano particles commonly used in food, dietary supplements, and cosmetics are harmful

This is a new study published by Pharmazie that once again proposed that the use of nanoparticles such as silicon dioxide or silica in foods, dietary supplements and cosmetics is a bad idea because these particles induce intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS- The production of reactive oxygen species, which can damage DNA and cellular components, can cause mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.

Nanoparticles such as titanium dioxide and silica are widely used in foods, dietary supplements and cosmetics, and their toxicity has not been fully evaluated. Recent studies in Russia, India and other countries have shown that nanoparticles can enter cells and destroy DAN, potentially causing genome instability, mutations or cancer development.

The World Health Organization has regarded inhaled nanoparticles as human carcinogens. Studies have also shown that nanoparticles applied locally to the skin through sunscreens, “usually zinc oxide nanomaterials, ingested nanoparticles such as titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide, can travel to various organs and cause health problems.

At present, Dr. Yoshida Takeshi and colleagues at the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan, discovered that amorphous silica nanoparticles induce the production of ROS in Langerhans cells.

For this study, amorphous silica particles of different sizes were tested in XS52 cells, which is a Langerhans cell-like cell line for reactive oxygen species. It has been found that cells exposed to “amorphous nano-silica particles (nSP)” with a particle size of 70 NM” cause higher levels than those exposed to micro-sized (usually greater than 200 NM) amorphous silica particles. ROS generation.

Nanoparticles are toxic-research confirms

Some dietary supplement manufacturers add zinc oxide, magnesium oxide, and iron oxide to their products as nutritional supplements. Like many other types of nanoparticles such as titanium dioxide and silica, according to a study published in Environmental Science: Process and Effects, zinc oxide nanoparticles are toxic.

Mehmet Ates  conducted the study and found that many shrimp larvae died after 96 hours of exposure to zinc nanoparticles or zinc oxide nanoparticles.

For research, they exposed saltwater shrimp (Artemia salt) larvae to different concentrations of zinc or zinc oxide nanoparticles for 24 hours or 96 hours.

It was observed that the nanoparticles accumulated in the intestines and shrimp larvae could not eliminate the ingested nanoparticles. No acute effects were observed within 24 hours, but the mortality rate increased sharply within 96 hours, and high concentrations of nanoparticles resulted in high mortality.

The smaller the zinc oxide nanoparticles, the more toxic

Toxicity is related to the size of the particles. 40-60nm zinc oxide nanoparticles are more toxic than 80-100nm zinc oxide nanoparticles, and 10-30nm zinc oxide nanoparticles are more toxic than 200nm nanoparticles.

Nanoparticles are commonly used in processed foods, dietary supplements and cosmetics. Commonly used nanoparticles include titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide (or simply silicon dioxide) and zinc oxide.

Studies have found that nanoparticles can enter cells and destroy DNA that causes genomic toxicity. Potential mutations may eventually lead to the development of cancer.

Those who want to avoid nanoparticles should check the product ingredient list. The name of the nanoparticle is usually combined with oxide or dioxide.

Nanoparticles used in food/dietary supplements found to be highly toxic

You may mistakenly believe that all ingredients used in foods, dietary supplements and cosmetics are safe. uncertain. Evidence shows that nanoparticles used in processed foods or dietary supplements (such as multivitamins) or as functional agents such as zinc oxide in sunscreens are used as opaque materials, flow agents and dispersants (silica or titanium dioxide) Or nutritional supplements (zinc oxide, etc.) are actually toxic.

Bao Shanxing and colleagues of Massachusetts State University published a study in the Journal of Environmental Pollution. They tested nanoparticles, alumina, silica, titanium dioxide and zinc oxide and Pseudomona fluorescein in bacterial cultures including Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli in comparison with their microorganisms.

They found that all nanoparticles except for titanium dioxide are much more toxic than their microparticles (now larger particles). Researchers have discovered that ZnO (zinc oxide, commonly used in dietary supplements as a source of zinc, is an important metal element in itself), which is particularly toxic. The zinc oxide solution caused 100% mortality to all three test bacteria, that is, the bacteria could not survive in the zinc oxide solution. Bacteria are single cells and they die because nanoparticles enter the cells and kill them. However, many nutritional supplement manufacturers still use these toxic chemicals in their products. Many consumers never read or believe in JKZX. Consumer-conscious websites like COM are insensitive to the purchase and use of some cheap consumer goods.

Studies have shown that the toxicity of released metal ions, such as zinc ions, is different from that of oxide particles. Studies have shown that nanoparticles attach and kill bacteria. Many studies have proved that nanoparticles are insoluble in water, and they are small enough to freely enter cells to destroy DNA and other molecules, kill cells or cause damage. Now it is known that these toxic nanoparticles do not have to enter bacteria to kill. Death their cells.

According to research reports, other nanoparticles are less toxic than zinc oxide. The researchers reported: “Al2O3 (alumina) nanoparticles have a 57% mortality rate for Bacillus subtilis, 36% mortality for E. coli, and 70% mortality for Peacock. SiO2 (silica) The nanoparticles killed 40% of Bacillus subtilis, 58% of Escherichia coli and 70% of Pseudomonas fluorescens. These are some big numbers.

In addition to titanium dioxide, zinc oxide and silicon dioxide are also commonly used in dietary supplements, such as multivitamins. Some dietary supplement manufacturers have stopped using titanium dioxide, but still use other nanoparticles such as zinc oxide, iron oxide, magnesium oxide and silicon dioxide (silica).

Microparticles may also damage cells, although they are less toxic than nanoscale controls. It turns out that only 6 to 8% of zinc oxide nanomaterials can be used to block sunlight in SUNSCREEENS. Some manufacturers have switched to zinc oxide microparticles (microparticles), but the effect is not as good as zinc oxide nanomaterials. Therefore, to achieve the same effect, 12 to 14% zinc oxide particles are needed. But it must be safer.

Silica nanoparticles can cause cardiovascular disease

A new study published in the July 2013 issue of “Biomaterials” shows that ingestion of silica nanoparticles can induce cardiovascular disease.

Nano particles, such as silica, commonly used in processed foods and dietary supplements, when inhaled, are recognized as carcinogens by the World Health Organization and are carcinogenic.

Many studies have shown that the ingested nanoparticles can spread to important organs such as the brain, liver, and kidneys to damage DNA and cause mutations. An early study of nanoparticles in zebrafish found that fish exposed to certain levels of nanoparticles for seven days had DNA fragmentation in all tissues studied.

The current study by J. Duan of Beijing Capital Medical University and his colleagues found that silica nanoparticles induce pericarditis toxicity and cause zebrafish bradycardia.

The study also found that “silica nanoparticles can inhibit angiogenesis and disrupt the formation and development of the heart.”

The researchers concluded: “Our findings indicate that exposure to silica nanoparticles is a possible risk factor for the cardiovascular system.

Previous studies have shown that ingested nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity and oxidative stress and apoptosis. Oxidative stress and apoptosis are considered to be the main risk factors for endothelial cell dysfunction or cardiovascular disease.

Nanoparticles commonly used in processed foods and dietary supplements include titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, magnesium oxide, iron oxide, and zinc oxide. The toxicity of nanoparticles has never been fully tested.

概要

纳米颗粒 (nanoparticles) 的潜在危害并没有得到消费者的广泛关注。环境科学家已经开始担心它们可能造成的污染,尽管许多产品中都已经大量地使用各种纳米颗粒,这些纳米材料可以进入身体污染人体,造成健康问题。

纳米颗粒的安全性尚未得到充分测试。它们被允许用于食品 (food),膳食补充剂  (dietary supplements) 和个人护理产品 (personal care products),是因为它们被认为是安全的。

有证据表明,用于各种产品(包括食品,膳食补充剂或维生素制剂,化妆品或个人护理或美容产品)的纳米颗粒可能会对健康细胞造成损害,并增加癌症和慢性健康状况的风险。

如果您想避免摄取纳米颗粒,您需要免吃加工食品,特别是由粉态原料制成的食物或维生素补充剂。食物或维生素粉末可含有高达2%的纳米颗粒。任何白色的东西都可以含有纳米粒子。你吃的牛奶有可能有纳米材料。许多食物可以含有纳米粒子。妇女喜欢把防晒剂放在脸上来掩护阳光。这些防晒剂  (sunscreens) 含有大量的纳米颗粒。纳米颗粒也可以应用于食品的表面,例如水果蜜饯 (dried fruits)。通常,晒干的蜜饯看起来是棕色或黑色。食品加工商可以在表面上使用纳米颗粒使颜色变浅。

我们这里早期报道,纳米颗粒可能会对精子 (sperm) 造成损害,降低男性的生育能力 (fertility) 或诱发遗传问题。

二氧化钛纳米颗粒可能会损害男性的生育能力

二氧化钛纳米颗粒引起肺癌细胞的遗传毒性,细胞凋亡

吸入的纳米颗粒如二氧化钛已被世界卫生组织  (World Health Organization) 认定为人类致癌物质 (human carcinogen),可能导致肺癌 (lung cancer)。人类实验毒理学的一项新研究间接证明了吸入的纳米颗粒如何能对肺细胞造成损害,导致肺癌的发展。

印度勒克瑙印度毒理学研究所的Srivastava及其同事在肺癌细胞中测试了二氧化钛纳米颗粒,发现纳米颗粒诱导氧化应激,细胞凋亡 (apoptosis) 和基因毒性 (genotoxicity)。

虽然研究并不是用健康的肺细胞进行的,但是研究显示,二氧化钛 (titanium dioxide) 纳米颗粒很可能对健康细胞造成同样的损害,导致肺癌的发展。就像辐射不仅可以杀死癌细胞,而且会损害健康细胞,导致诱变 (mutagenesis) 和致癌作用 (carcinogenesis)。

作者认为,暴露于浓度为10和50ug / mL的二氧化钛纳米颗粒的肺癌细胞6至24小时显示氧化应激的显着诱导,如测定活性氧和丙二醛的测定所示,并降低过氧化氢酶和谷胱甘肽的活性。

此外,二氧化钛纳米颗粒诱导表达基因毒性的凋亡小体和微核的形成。

“观察到凋亡标志物如P(53),P(21)和切割的半胱天冬酶-3的表达的显着上调,而在mRNA和蛋白质水平上,Bcl(2)的水平下调。研究人员在报告中说,TiO(2)NPs暴露对Bax表达无明显影响。

研究人员得出结论:“数据表明,纳米TiO(2)(二氧化钛)诱导人肺癌细胞株A549的氧化应激,基因毒性和细胞凋亡,我们的结果还鉴定了TiO(2)NP诱导的变化在A549细胞中。

预计2012年美国226,160名男女得肺癌,该疾病及其并发症预计将在同一年和同一个国家杀死160,340病人。

二氧化钛纳米颗粒也通常使用在化妆品里,如肥皂,食品,和保健品。研究表明,纳米颗粒可以在体内运行到主要器官如肝,肺,脑和肾脏,并且可以进入健康细胞并破坏DNA或导致诱变和致癌作用。因此,食品和化妆品中的纳米颗粒可能会导致健康问题,就像吸入纳米颗粒一样。

常用于食品,膳食补充剂,化妆品的纳米颗粒有害

这是Pharmazie发表的一项新研究再次提出,在食物,膳食补充剂和化妆品中使用纳米颗粒如二氧化硅 (silicon dioxide or silica) 是一个坏主意,因为这些颗粒诱导细胞内活性氧(ROS- reactive oxygen species)的产生,这会损害DNA和细胞成分,可引起诱变和致癌。

纳米颗粒如二氧化钛和二氧化硅广泛用于食品,膳食补充剂和化妆品中,而其毒性尚未得到充分评估。最近俄罗斯,印度等国家的研究表明,纳米颗粒可以进入细胞并破坏DAN,潜在地导致基因组不稳定,突变或癌症发展。

世界卫生组织已将吸入纳米颗粒视为人类致癌物质。研究还表明,通过防晒剂局部施用于皮肤上的纳米颗粒, 通常是氧化锌纳米材料,摄入的纳米颗粒如二氧化钛和二氧化硅,可以运行到各种器官,导致健康问题。

目前在日本大阪大阪大学药学院研究生院的吉田毅博士和同事发现,无定形二氧化硅纳米粒子在朗格汉斯细胞中诱导ROS的产生。

为了该研究,在XS52细胞中测试不同大小的无定形二氧化硅颗粒,其是用于活性氧的朗格汉斯细胞样细胞系。已经发现暴露于粒径为 70NM 的“无定形纳米二氧化硅颗粒(nSP)”的细胞比暴露于微米尺寸 (micro-sized, 通常指大于200NM) 的无定形二氧化硅颗粒引起更高水平的ROS产生。

纳米颗粒是有毒的 – 研究证实

一些膳食补充剂制造商在其产品中加入氧化锌 (Zinc oxide),氧化镁 (magnesium oxide),氧化铁 (iron oxide) 等作为营养补充物质。与许多其他类型的纳米颗粒如二氧化钛和二氧化硅一样,根据一项发表在环境科学:工艺与影响的研究,氧化锌纳米颗粒是有毒性的。

Mehmet Ates 进行了该研究,发现许多虾幼虫在暴露于锌纳米颗粒或氧化锌纳米颗粒96小时后死亡。

为研究,他们将盐水虾(卤虫盐)幼虫暴露于不同浓度的不同浓度的锌或氧化锌纳米颗粒24小时或96小时。

观察到,积累在肠和虾幼虫内的纳米颗粒不能消除摄取的纳米颗粒。在24小时内没有观察到急性效应,但死亡率在96小时内急剧增加,高浓度的纳米颗粒导致高死亡率。

越微小的氧化锌纳米颗粒越有毒性

毒性与颗粒的大小有关。 40〜60nm的氧化锌纳米粒子比80〜100nm氧化锌纳米粒子的毒性更大,10〜30nm的氧化锌纳米粒子比200nm纳米粒子的毒性更大。

纳米颗粒通常用于加工食品,膳食补充剂和化妆品。常用的纳米颗粒包括二氧化钛,二氧化硅(或简单的二氧化硅)和氧化锌等。

研究发现纳米颗粒可以进入细胞并破坏导致基因组毒性的DNA,潜在的突变可能最终导致癌症发展。

那些想避免纳米颗粒的人应该检查产品成分清单。纳米颗粒的名称通常与氧化物 (oxide) )或二氧化物 (dioxide) 结合。

用于食品/膳食补充剂的纳米颗粒发现毒性高

您可能会错误地认为食品,膳食补充剂和化妆品中使用的所有成分都是安全的。不一定。证据表明,在加工食品或膳食补充剂(如多种维生素)中或作为功能剂如氧化锌在防晒霜中使用的纳米颗粒用作不透光材料,流动剂分散剂(二氧化硅或二氧化钛)或营养物补充剂(氧化锌等)实际上是有毒的。

马萨诸塞州立大学的宝山兴和同事在环境污染杂志上发表了一项研究。他们在包括枯草芽孢杆菌,大肠杆菌在内的细菌培养物中测试了纳米颗粒,氧化铝,二氧化硅,二氧化钛和氧化锌和Pseudomona荧光素与其微生物相比较。

他们发现,所有的纳米颗粒(nanoparticles)除二氧化钛,都比它们的微尺寸的颗粒 (microparticles)(现对颗粒大一些)的毒性要大得多。研究人员发现ZnO(氧化锌,通常用于膳食补充剂作为锌源,本身是重要的金属元素),是特别有毒的。氧化锌溶液对所有三种测试细菌造成100%的死亡率,即细菌不能在氧化锌溶液中存活。细菌是单细胞,它们死亡,因为纳米颗粒进入细胞并杀死它们。可是很多营养补充剂制造商,照旧用这些有毒的化学品在他们的产品中。很多消费者,从来不读也不信像JKZX。COM这样的为消费者着想的网站,而麻木购买与使用一些廉价消费品。

研究表明,释放的金属离子 (metal ions) 如锌离子的毒性与氧化物颗粒的毒性不同。研究表明,纳米粒子附着并杀死细菌。在许多研究中已经证明纳米颗粒是不溶于水的,并且它们足够小以能够自由地进入细胞而破坏DNA和其他分子,杀死细胞或引起损伤,现在知道这些有毒的纳米颗粒不必进入细菌来杀死它们细胞。

根据研究报告,其他纳米颗粒的毒性低于氧化锌。研究人员报道:“Al2O3(氧化铝)纳米粒子对枯草芽孢杆菌的死亡率为57%,对大肠杆菌的死亡率为36%,而对孔雀素的死亡率为70%,SiO2(二氧化硅)纳米颗粒杀死了40%的枯草芽孢杆菌,58%的大肠杆菌和70%的荧光假单胞菌。这是一些很大的数字。

除了二氧化钛之外,氧化锌和二氧化硅也都常用于膳食补充剂 (dietary supplements),如多种维生素。一些膳食补充剂制造商已经停止使用二氧化钛,但仍然使用其他纳米颗粒如氧化锌,氧化铁,氧化镁和二氧化硅(二氧化硅)。

微粒(microparticles)也可能会损伤细胞,尽管它们的毒性比纳米级对照物少。原来在SUNSCREENS中只需加6到8%的氧化锌纳米材料就可以挡住阳光。有的制造商,已经改用氧化锌微颗粒(microparticles). 但是效果不及氧化锌纳米材料。所以,要达到同样的效果需要12到14%的氧化锌微颗粒。但它要安全些。

二氧化硅纳米颗粒可引起心血管疾病

在2013年7月刊“生物材料”上发表的一项新研究表明,摄入二氧化硅纳米颗粒可诱发心血管疾病 (cardiovascular disease)。

通常用于加工食品和膳食补充剂的纳米颗粒,如二氧化硅,当被吸入时,被世界卫生组织认定为致癌物质,是一种致癌症物。

许多研究表明,摄入后的纳米颗粒可以传播到脑,肝,肾等重要的器官,以损伤DNA并引起突变。斑马鱼中纳米颗粒的一个早期研究发现鱼类暴露于某些水平的纳米颗粒七天,在所有研究的组织中都有DNA片段化 (DNA fragmentation)。

中国北京首都医科大学的J.Duan和同事们目前的研究发现,二氧化硅纳米粒子诱导心包炎毒性,引起斑马鱼心动过缓。

研究还发现,“二氧化硅纳米粒子可以抑制血管生成并扰乱心脏的形成和发育”。

研究人员得出结论:“我们的研究结果表明,接触二氧化硅纳米粒子是心血管系统的一个可能的危险因素。

以前的研究表明,摄入的纳米颗粒诱导细胞毒性和氧化应激和细胞凋亡。氧化应激和凋亡被认为是内皮细胞功能障碍或心血管疾病的主要危险因素。

通常用于加工食品和膳食补充剂的纳米颗粒包括二氧化钛,二氧化硅,氧化镁,氧化铁,和氧化锌。纳米颗粒的毒性从未得到充分的测试。

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