Low education and income level increase risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest 低教育和收入水平會增加院外心臟驟停的風險

Editor’s note:  Low education generally means lower IQ.  At least it means low income.  When your income is low, then you have a lot of stress from interpersonal relation, finance, daily life, and work environment.  So they are at high risk for cancer and heart disease.  You have to buy and eat the worst foods you afford which can increase your risk.   Now after they acquire the disease, their prognosis would be poorer because 1) They do not have as much fund to support their treatment, 2) Worst, they may not make good life-or-death decisions.

編者按:低學歷通常意味著低智商。 至少這意味著低收入。 當你的收入很低時,你就會有很多來自人際關係、財務、日常生活和工作環境的壓力。 因此,他們患癌症和心髒病的風險很高。 現在,在他們患上這種疾病後,他們的預後會更差,因為 1) 他們沒有足夠的資金來支持他們的治療,2) 最糟糕的是,他們可能無法做出正確的生死決定。

Peer-Reviewed Publication
Karolinska Institutet<

Socioeconomic factors affect the risk of cardiovascular disease and the chances of recovery. New research from Karolinska Institutet interrogates the significance of socioeconomic factors for sudden out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The study, which is published in Circulation, shows that education and income impact survival rates in both men and women.

Every year, some 10,000 people – equivalent to about 25 a day – suffer a sudden outside-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Sweden, according to the Center for Resuscitation Science at Karolinska Institutet. In Europe and the USA, this figure is 300,000 and 180,000 respectively. Mortality is around 90 per cent.

A relatively common cause – one of many – is a myocardial infarction that disrupts the rhythm of the heart and causes it to stop. This leads to an immediate cessation of the blood flow, and within seconds the sufferer collapses unconscious.

“Socioeconomic factors like income and level of education have been given little attention in the field of OHCA,” says the study’s first author Martin Jonsson, researcher at the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet.

The Center for Resuscitation Science at Karolinska Institutet has now studied possible links between income and educational level, and 30-day survival after OHCA.

Collating data from the Swedish Registry for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Statistics Sweden’s LISA database and the National Board of Health and Welfare’s patient register, the researchers drew their results from 31,373 cases of OHCA between 2010 and 2017.

More publicly accessible defibrillators

These results showed that lower levels of both income and education are associated with reduced chances of survival, a correlation that was observed in both men and women. While disposable income had a somewhat higher impact than educational level, the researchers were unable to determine any causal relationship.

“Our results support the importance of prophylactic interventions against cardiovascular disease among people with lower socioeconomic status,” says Jacob Hollenberg, director of the Center for Resuscitation Science at Karolinska Institutet, assistant professor and cardiologist at Södersjukhuset. “It’s also vital that people receive training in cardio-pulmonary resuscitation and that automated external defibrillators become widely available in society. Such measures will reduce the number of OHCA deaths.”


The study was financed by grants from EU Horizon 2020 and the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation.

Publication: “Inequalities in income and education are associated with survival differences after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest – a nationwide observational study”, Martin Jonsson, Juho Härkönen, Petter Ljungman, Per Nordberg, Mattias Ringh, Geir Hirlekar, Araz Rawshani, Johan Herlitz MD, Rickard Ljung, Jacob Hollenberg. Circulation, 12 November 2021, doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.056012.





Method of Research

Observational study

Subject of Research


Article Title

“Inequalities in income and education are associated with survival differences after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest – a nationwide observational study”

Article Publication Date


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