根據最新評論,以植物為基礎的飲食有助於預防和控制哮喘 A plant-based diet helps to prevent and manage asthma, according to new review

News Release 27-Mar-2020

Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine

WASHINGTON–A plant-based diet can help prevent and manage asthma, while dairy products and high-fat foods raise the risk, according to a new review published in Nutrition Reviews.

Asthma is a common chronic condition in which the airways become narrow and inflamed–sometimes leading to difficulty with breathing, coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.

“Asthma is a condition that affects more than 25 million Americans, and unfortunately it can make people more vulnerable in the COVID-19 outbreak,” says study author Hana Kahleova, MD, PhD, director of clinical research for the Physicians Committee. “This research offers hope that dietary changes could be helpful.”

Researchers with the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine examined the evidence related to diet and asthma and found that certain foods–including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other high-fiber foods–can be beneficial, while others–such as dairy products and foods high in saturated fat–can be harmful.

The review authors highlight a study finding that when compared to a control group, asthma patients who consumed a plant-based diet for eight weeks experienced a greater reduction in use of asthma medication and less severe, less frequent symptoms. In another study, asthma patients adopted a plant-based diet for a year and saw improvements in vital capacity–a measure of the volume of air patients can expel–and other measures.

The authors suggest that a plant-based diet is beneficial because it has been shown to reduce systemic inflammation, which can exacerbate asthma. Plant-based diets are also high in fiber, which has been positively associated with improvements in lung function. The researchers also highlight the antioxidants and flavonoids found in plant foods, which may have a protective effect.

The review also finds that dairy consumption can raise the risk for asthma and worsen symptoms. One 2015 study found that children who consumed the most dairy had higher odds of developing asthma, compared with the children consuming the least. In another study, children with asthma were placed in either a control group, where they made no dietary changes, or in an experimental group where they eliminated dairy and eggs for eight weeks. After eliminating dairy, the experimental group experienced a 22% improvement in peak expiratory flow rate–a measure of how fast the children were able to exhale–while children in the control group experienced a 0.6% decrease.

High fat intake, consumption of saturated fat, and low fiber intake were also associated with airway inflammation and worsened lung function in asthma patients.

“This groundbreaking research shows that filling our plates with plant-based foods–and avoiding dairy products and other high-fat foods–can be a powerful tool for preventing and managing asthma,” says Dr. Kahleova.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention urges those with asthma to have a plan in place–including stocking up on supplies, taking asthma medication as needed, avoiding crowds, and practicing good hygiene.

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華盛頓-《營養評論》上發表的一篇新評論指出,以植物為基礎的飲食可以幫助預防和控制哮喘,而乳製品和高脂食品則增加了患病風險。

哮喘是一種常見的慢性疾病,其中的氣道狹窄而發炎,有時會導致呼吸困難,咳嗽,喘息和呼吸急促。

“哮喘是一種影響超過2500萬美國人的疾病,不幸的是,它會使人們在COVID-19爆發中更加脆弱,”研究作者Hana Kahleova,醫學博士,醫師委員會臨床研究主任說。 “這項研究提供了希望,飲食的變化可能會有所幫助。”

醫師負責任醫學委員會的研究人員檢查了與飲食和哮喘有關的證據,發現某些食物-包括水果,蔬菜,全穀類食品和其他高纖維食物-可能有益,而其他食物-例如乳製品飽和脂肪含量高的產品和食品可能有害。

該評論作者強調了一項研究發現,與對照組相比,食用植物性飲食八週的哮喘患者使用哮喘藥物的減少更大,症狀更輕,頻率更低。在另一項研究中,哮喘患者採用以植物為基礎的飲食一年,並觀察到其肺活量的改善(一種可以排出空氣的量)和其他措施。

作者認為,以植物為基礎的飲食是有益的,因為它已被證明可以減少全身性炎症,從而加劇哮喘。植物性飲食的纖維含量也很高,這與肺功能的改善呈正相關。研究人員還強調了在植物性食物中發現的抗氧化劑和類黃酮可能具有保護作用。

該評論還發現,食用乳製品會增加患哮喘的風險,並使症狀惡化。 2015年的一項研究發現,與食用最少乳製品的孩子相比,食用乳製品最多的孩子患哮喘的機率更高。在另一項研究中,哮喘兒童被放置在沒有飲食習慣改變的對照組中,或者被放置了八個星期的牛奶和雞蛋實驗組中。排除乳製品後,實驗組的呼氣峰值流速提高了22%(這是兒童呼氣速度的一種度量),而對照組的兒童則降低了0.6%。

哮喘患者中,高脂肪攝入,飽和脂肪消耗和低纖維攝入也與氣道炎症和肺功能惡化有關。

Kahleova博士說:“這項開創性的研究表明,用植物性食品填充我們的盤子,避免使用乳製品和其他高脂食品,可以成為預防和控制哮喘的有力工具。”

在COVID-19大流行期間,疾病控制與預防中心敦促哮喘患者制定計劃-包括儲備庫存,根據需要服用哮喘藥物,避免人群和保持良好的衛生習慣。

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