米国人仍然吃太多的加工肉和太少的鱼 Americans still eat too much processed meat and too little fish

评论:许多消费者都知道鱼比肉更健康。 但有多少人可以吃得起鱼? 现在野生捕捞的鱼非常罕见,价格昂贵。 虽然市场上有相当多的鱼,但其中大多是农场养殖,它们可能被各种毒素污染,这就是为什么有些消费者不想吃农场养鱼的原因。
新闻稿201-Jun-2019

米国人仍然吃太多的加工肉和太少的鱼

发表在“营养与饮食学会杂志”上的一项新分析表明,尽管有相反的公共卫生准则,米国成年人吃的加工肉多和吃鱼少的状况与18年前一样。

爱思唯尔

费城,2019年6月21日 – 由Elsevier出版的“营养与饮食学会期刊”的一项新研究发现,米国人食用的加工肉类数量在过去18年中保持不变,鱼类贝类的摄入量也没有增加。此外,四分之一的米国成年人仍在吃超过建议水平的未加工红肉,不到15%符合鱼/贝类消费指南。从积极的方面来看,米国人比18年前吃的牛肉少,鸡肉少,事实上,家禽的消费量首次超过未加工的红肉。

“尽管有强有力的证据表明加工肉类与癌症风险有关,但米国成年人加工肉类的消费量在研究期间(1999-2016)没有变化,”首席研究员Fang Fang Zhang,医学博士,弗里德曼营养科学与医学博士说。政策,塔夫斯大学,波士顿,马萨诸塞州,米国。

“虽然健康以外的其他因素(如社会,文化和经济)可以影响米国人的食物选择,但与加工肉类相关的健康风险缺乏广泛意识可能导致过去18年消费变化不足。我们的研究结果支持采取进一步行动,提高公众对米国高加工肉类消费相关健康风险的认识。“

该研究使用了一个全国代表性的样本,该样本包括参与全国健康和营养检查调查(NHANES)的近44,000名美国成年人(20岁及以上)的饮食数据,直至2016年。调查人员评估了未加工肉类消费的趋势。过去18年来,红肉,家禽,鱼类和贝类及其购买地点。

除了上面提到的使用完整NHANES数据的总体趋势之外,研究团队还比较了1999 – 2000年至2015 – 2016年的NHANES数据。主要发现包括:

加工肉类:消费量保持不变 – 每周182克,而每周187克。

消费量排名前五位(占总数的百分比,2015-2016):午餐肉(39%),香肠(24%),热狗(9%),火腿(9%)和培根(5%)
主要购买地点:商店和快餐店

未加工的红肉:减少趋势 – 每周340克,而每周284克,主要是由于牛肉消费减少(每周减少78克)。

家禽:增加趋势 – 每周256克,而每周303克,主要是由于鸡肉消费增加(每周增加34克)

鱼/海鲜:消费量保持不变 – 每周115克,而每周116克

越来越多的证据表明过度消费加工肉类会增加肥胖,糖尿病,心血管疾病和某些癌症的风险。加工肉类被国际癌症研究机构(IARC)列为“人类致癌物”(第1组)。米国癌症协会(ACS),世界癌症研究基金会(WCRF)/米国癌症研究所(AICR)发布了限制加工肉类消费用于预防癌症的建议。

张博士上个月发表的一项研究估计,2015年新增癌症病例超过14,524例,原因是2015年美国20岁及以上成年人的加工肉类消费量较高。未来的研究需要确定减少加工肉类消费的障碍,评估潜在的公共卫生干预措施的有效性,并探索诸如营养质量标准,消费税和健康警示标签等政策。

米国成年人鱼/贝类消费量低可能是由于其零售价格高,缺乏对其健康益处的认识以及对某些鱼类中汞污染的担忧,尽管科学证据表明鱼类摄入的益处超过了潜力大多数人的风险。鉴于鱼类消费量(2015-2016)仅为2015 – 2020年米国人膳食指南推荐水平的一半,因此需要努力促进海产品的消费和品种,特别是那些富含ω-3脂肪酸的海产品。

“这项研究的结果可以为改善饮食和减少米国慢性疾病负担的公共卫生政策优先事项提供信息。因为商店和快餐店是加工肉类的主要购买地点,未来的政策可能会优先考虑这些作为减少干预的主要场所米国成年人加工食肉,“张博士说。

Comment: Many consumers know fish is healthier than meat. But how many people can offer to eat good fish? Wild caught fish now is extremely rare and they are pricey. Although quite some fish is put on the market, many of them are farm raised and contaminated with all sorts of toxins which is why some consumers do not want to eat farm raised fish.
News Release 

Americans still eat too much processed meat and too little fish

A new analysis published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics indicates that US adults eat as much processed meat and as little fish as they did 18 years ago, despite public health guidelines to the contrary

Elsevier

Philadelphia, June 21, 2019 – A new study in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, published by Elsevier, found that the amount of processed meat consumed by Americans has remained unchanged in the past 18 years, nor has their intake of fish/shellfish increased. In addition, one quarter of US adults are still eating more unprocessed red meat than the recommended level, and less than 15 percent meet the guidelines for fish/shellfish consumption. On a positive note, Americans are eating less beef and more chicken than they did 18 years ago, and in fact, for the first time, consumption of poultry exceeds that of unprocessed red meat.

“Despite strong evidence linking processed meat with cancer risk, consumption of processed meat among US adults didn’t change over the study period (1999-2016),” said lead investigator Fang Fang Zhang, MD, PhD, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA. “While factors other than health (e.g., social, cultural, and economic) can influence Americans’ food choices, the lack of widespread awareness of health risks associated with processed meat may have contributed to the lack of consumption change in the past 18 years. Our findings support further actions to increase the public awareness of the health risks associated with high processed meat consumption in the US.”

The study used a nationally representative sample comprised of dietary data from nearly 44,000 US adults (ages 20 and older) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), through 2016. The investigators assessed trends in consumption of processed meat, unprocessed red meat, poultry, fish, and shellfish over the past 18 years and their purchase locations.

In addition to the overall trends noted above using full NHANES data, the research team also compared NHANES data from 1999-2000 to 2015-2016. Key findings include:

Processed meats: Consumption remained unchanged – 182 grams/week compared with 187 grams/week.

  • Top five consumed (percentage among total, 2015-2016): Luncheon meat (39 percent), sausage (24 percent), hot dog (9 percent), ham (9 percent), and bacon (5 percent)
  • Primary purchase locations: Stores and fast-food restaurants

Unprocessed red meat: Decreasing trend – 340 grams/week compared with 284 grams/week, primarily due to decreased consumption of beef (down by 78 grams/week).

Poultry: Increasing trend – 256 grams/week compared with 303 grams/week, primarily due to increased consumption of chicken (up by 34 grams/week)

Fish/seafood: Consumption remained unchanged – 115 grams/week compared with 116 grams/week

There is accumulating evidence linking excessive consumption of processed meat to increased risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and some cancers. Processed meat has been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The American Cancer Society (ACS), the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) issued recommendations limiting processed meat consumption for cancer prevention. A study by Dr. Zhang published last month estimated than 14,524 new cancer cases were attributable to high consumption of processed meat in 2015 among US adults aged 20 years and older. Future research is needed to identify barriers to reducing processed meat consumption, evaluate the effectiveness of potential public health interventions, and explore policies such as nutrition quality standards, excise taxes, and health warning labels.

The low consumption of fish/shellfish among US adults could be due to its high retail price, lack of awareness of its health benefits, and concerns about mercury contamination in certain fish, although the scientific evidence suggests that the benefits of fish intake exceed the potential risks for most individuals. Given that fish consumption (2015-2016) was only half of the recommended level in the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, efforts are needed to promote the consumption and variety of seafood, especially those varieties high in omega-3 fatty acids.

“Findings of this study can inform public health policy priorities for improving diet and reducing chronic disease burden in the US. Because stores and fast-food restaurants are main purchase locations for processed meat, future policies may prioritize these as primary sites of intervention for reducing processed meat consumption among US adults,” noted Dr. Zhang.

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