转基因食品的健康风险

转基因食品健康风险65 – 第1节

65 Health Risks of GM Foods – Section 1

Section 1: Evidence of reactions in animals and humans

1.1 GM potatoes damaged rats
1. Rats were fed potatoes engineered to produce their own insecticide.
2. They developed potentially precancerous cell growth in the digestive tract, inhibited development of their brains, livers and testicles, partial atrophy of the liver, enlarged pancreases and intestines and immune system damage.
3. The cause was not the insecticide, but in all likelihood was the process of genetic engineering.
4. GM foods on the market—which were created with the same process—have not been subject to such an extensive testing protocol.

在食用转基因食品后,大鼠在消化道中发展出潜在的癌前细胞生长,抑制了大脑,肝脏和睾丸的发育,肝部分萎缩,胰腺和肠的扩大以及免疫系统损伤。

1.2 Rats fed GM tomatoes got bleeding stomachs, several died
1. Rats were fed the GM FlavrSavr tomato for 28 days.
2. Seven of 20 rats developed stomach lesions (bleeding stomachs); another 7 of 40 died within two weeks and were replaced in the study.
3. The tomato was approved despite unresolved safety questions by FDA scientists.

食用转基因番茄后,20只大鼠中有7只发生胃部病变(胃出血)。40只大鼠中有7只在两周内死亡,

1.3 Rats fed Bt corn had multiple health problems
1. Rats were fed Monsanto’s Mon 863 Bt corn for 90 days.
2. They showed significant changes in their blood cells, livers and kidneys, which might indicate disease.
3. Although experts demanded follow-up, Monsanto used unscientific, contradictory arguments to dismiss concerns.

在食用转基因玉米后,大鼠的血细胞,肝脏和肾脏显示出显着的变化,这可能表明疾病。

1.4 Mice fed GM Bt potatoes had intestinal damage
1. Mice were fed either GM potatoes engineered to produce the Bt-toxin or natural potatoes spiked with Bt-toxin.
2. Both diets created abnormal and excessive cell growth in the lower part of their small intestine (ileum).
3. Similar damage to the human small intestine might result in incontinence or flu-like symptoms, and may be precancerous.
4. This study overturns the assumptions that Bt-toxin is destroyed during digestion and is not biologically active in mammals.

转基因Bt土豆和天然马铃薯BT在大鼠的小肠(回肠)下部导致异常和过度的细胞生长。 对人类小肠的类似损伤可能导致失禁或流感样症状,并可能是癌前病变。

1.5 Workers exposed to Bt cotton developed allergies
1. Agricultural laborers in six villages who picked or loaded Bt cotton reported reactions of the skin, eyes and upper respiratory tract.
2. Some laborers required hospitalization.
3. Employees at a cotton gin factory take antihistamines everyday.
4. One doctor treated about 250 cotton laborers

选择或加载转基因棉花的六个村庄的农业劳动者报告了皮肤,眼睛和上呼吸道的反应。 一些劳工需要住院治疗。 棉花厂的员工每天服用抗组胺药。 一位医生治疗了约250名棉花工人

1.6 Sheep died after grazing in Bt cotton fields
1. After the cotton harvest in parts of India, sheep herds grazed continuously on Bt cotton plants.
2. Reports from four villages revealed that about 25% of the sheep died within a week.
3. Post mortem studies suggest a toxic reaction.

1.印度部分地区的棉花收获后,羊群在转基因棉花植物上不断放牧。
2.四个村庄的报告显示,约25%的绵羊在一周内死亡。

1.7 Inhaled Bt corn pollen may have triggered disease in humans
1. In 2003, approximately 100 people living next to a Bt cornfield in the Philippines developed skin, respiratory, intestinal reactions and other symptoms while the corn was shedding pollen.
2. Blood tests of 39 people showed an antibody response to Bt-toxin, which supports—but does not prove—a link.
3. The symptoms reappeared in 2004 in at least four other villages that planted the same corn variety.
4. Villagers also attribute several animal deaths to the corn.

吸入转基因Bt玉米花粉可能触发了人类的疾病 –  2003年,菲律宾Bt玉米田旁边约有100人生活在皮肤,呼吸道,肠道反应等症状,玉米脱落花粉。39人的血液检查显示对Bt毒素的抗体反应。 至少在另外四个种植同一玉米品种的村庄,2004年症状重新出现。村民还将几种动物死亡归因于转基因玉米。

1.8 Farmers report pigs and cows became sterile from GM corn
1. More than 20 farmers in North America report that pigs fed GM corn varieties had low conception rates, false pregnancies or gave birth to bags of water.
2. Both male and female pigs became sterile.
3. Some farmers also report sterility among cows.

农民说,吃了转基因玉米后,猪和牛变得不育。- 北美20多位农民报告说,吃转基因玉米的猪的受孕率低,假怀孕或生下一袋水。公的和母的猪都不育。 一些农民也报告了奶牛的不育症

1.9 Twelve cows in Germany died mysteriously when fed Bt corn
1. Twelve dairy cows died on a farm in Hesse Germany, after being fed a diet with significant amounts of a single GM corn variety, Bt 176.
2. Other cows in the herd had to be killed due to some mysterious illness.
3. Syngenta, the producers of Bt 176, compensated the farmer for part of his losses, but did not admit responsibility for the cow deaths.
4. In spite of demands by the farmer and even public protests, no detailed autopsy reports were made available.

德国十二头牛在喂养转基因Bt玉米时神秘死亡 – 在德国黑森州的一个农场,在喂食大量单一转基因玉米Bt 176的饮食后,12头奶牛死亡。由于一些神秘的病,牛群中的其他奶牛不得不被杀死。先正达,Bt 176的生产商,补偿了农民的一部分损失,但没有承认对死牛的责任。尽管农民要求甚至公开抗议,但没有详细的尸体解剖报告。

1.10 Mice fed Roundup Ready soy had liver cell problems
1. The liver cells of mice fed Roundup Ready soybeans showed significant changes.
2. Irregularly shaped nuclei and nucleoli, an increased number of nuclear pores and other changes, all suggest higher metabolism and altered patterns of gene expression.
3. The changes may be in response to a toxin.
4. Most of the effects disappeared when GM soy was removed from the diet.

小鼠喂食Roundup Ready大豆有肝细胞问题 – 饲喂Roundup Ready大豆的小鼠的肝细胞显示出显着的变化。  不规则形核和核仁,核孔增多等变化,都表明更高的代谢和改变的基因表达模式。这些变化可能是对毒素的反应。转基因大豆从饮食中除去后,大部分效果消失。

1.11 Mice fed Roundup Ready soy had problems with the pancreas
1. Mice fed GM soy showed changes in the synthesis and processing of digestive enzymes.
2. The production of alpha-amylase, a major digestive enzyme, dropped by as much as 77%.
3. This, combined with other pancreatic changes, suggests that GM soy may interfere with digestion and assimilation, as well as alter gene expression.

小鼠喂食Roundup Ready大豆有胰腺问题。饲喂转基因大豆的小鼠在消化酶的合成和加工中显示出变化。主要消化酶α-淀粉酶的产量下降了77%。这与其他胰腺变化相结合,表明转基因大豆可能会干扰消化和同化,以及改变基因表达。

1.12 Mice fed Roundup Ready soy had unexplained changes in testicular cells
1. The structure and gene expression pattern of testicle cells of mice fed Roundup Ready soybeans changed significantly.
2. The cause for the changes is unknown, but the testicles are sensitive indicators of toxins.
3. Some of the changes might possibly influence adult fertility as well as the health of the offspring.
4. Mouse embryos from GM-fed mothers did show a temporary decrease in gene expression.

小鼠喂养的Roundup Ready大豆在睾丸细胞中有不明原因的变化 – 饲喂Roundup Ready大豆的小鼠睾丸细胞的结构和基因表达模式发生了显着变化。变化的原因未知,但睾丸是毒素的敏感指标。一些变化可能会影响成年人的生育能力和后代的健康。来自转基因喂养的雌性小鼠的小鼠胚胎确实显示基因表达的暂时降低。

1.13 Roundup Ready Soy Changed Cell Metabolism in Rabbit Organs
1. Rabbits fed GM soy for about 40 days showed significant differences in the amounts of certain enzymes in their kidneys, hearts and livers.
2. A rise in LDH1 levels in all three organs suggests an increase in cellular metabolism.
3. Changes in other enzymes point to other alterations in the organs.

综合准备转基因大豆改变兔器官细胞代谢 – 转基因大豆喂养大约40天的兔子显示出其肾脏,心脏和肝脏中某些酶的量的显着差异。所有三个器官的LDH1水平升高表明细胞代谢的增加。其他酶的变化指向器官的其他改变。

1.14 Most offspring of rats fed Roundup Ready soy died within three weeks
1. Female rats were fed Roundup Ready soy starting before conception and continuing through pregnancy and weaning.
2. Of the offspring, 55.6% died within three weeks compared to 9% from non-GM soy controls.
3. Some pups from GM-fed mothers were significantly smaller and both mothers and pups were more aggressive.
4. In a separate study, after a lab began feeding rats a commercial diet containing GM soy, offspring mortality reached 55.3%.
5. When offspring from GM-fed rats were mated together, they were unable to conceive.

大多数饲喂Roundup Ready GMO大豆的后代在三周内死亡 –  在受孕前从雌性大鼠喂养Roundup Ready GMO大豆,并继续通过怀孕和断奶。 在后代,55.6%在三周内死亡,而非转基因大豆对照组为9%。 来自转基因食品母亲的一些小狗显着较小,母亲和幼仔都更具侵略性。 在一项单独的研究中,实验室开始喂养大鼠商业饮食与转基因大豆后,死亡率达到了55.3%。 当转基因饲料大鼠的后代配对在一起时,他们无法怀孕。

1.15 Soy allergies skyrocketed in the UK, soon after GM soy was introduced
1. In a single year, 1999, soy allergies in the UK jumped from 10% to 15% of the sampled population.
2. GM soy was imported into the country shortly before 1999.
3. Antibody tests verify that some individuals react differently to GM and non-GM soy varieties.
4. GM soy also has an increased concentration of a known allergen

转基因大豆被引入后不久,英国的大豆过敏率急剧上升 –  在1999年的一年中,英国的大豆过敏从抽样人口的10%上升到15%。1999年前,转基因大豆进口到该国。抗体测试验证一些个体对转基因和非转基因大豆品种的反应不同。 转基因大豆也已经增加了已知变应原的浓度

1.16 Rats fed Roundup Ready canola had heavier livers
1. The livers of rats fed GM canola were 12-16% heavier than those fed non-GM varieties.
2. The liver is a chemical factory and primary detoxifier for the body.
3. Heavier livers may indicate liver disease or inflammation.
4. If this were caused by oil-soluble toxins, they may be present in canola oil.

大量饲喂Roundup Ready GMO油菜籽有较重的肝脏 – 喂食转基因油菜籽的大鼠肝脏比非转基因油菜品种重12-16%。肝脏是化学工厂和身体的主要解毒剂。较重肝脏可能表明肝脏疾病或炎症。如果这是由油溶性毒素引起的,它们可能存在于卡诺拉油中。

1.17 Twice the number of chickens died when fed Liberty Link corn
1. The death rate for chickens fed Chardon LL GM corn for 42 days was 7%, compared to 3.5% for controls.
2. GM-fed chickens also had more erratic body weight and food intake, and less weight gain overall.
3. The study was designed so that only huge differences would be statistically significant.
4. The results were therefore dismissed without follow-up.

喂自由链玉米时,鸡数量死亡的两倍 – 喂42天的Chardon LL转基因玉米的鸡的死亡率为7%,而对照组为3.5%。 转基因饲料鸡的体重和食物摄入量也不稳定,整体体重增加较少。该研究的设计使得只有巨大的差异具有统计学意义。因此,没有进一步研究,结果被驳回。

1.18 GM peas generated an allergic-type inflammatory response in mice
1. In advanced tests not normally part of GM crop evaluations, protein produced by GM peas generated a dangerous immune response in mice.
2. That “same” protein, when produced naturally in beans, had no effect.
3. The GM peas produced a subtle, hard-to-detect difference in the way sugar molecules attached to the protein, which likely caused the problem.
4. The response in mice suggested that the GM peas could provoke inflammatory or allergic reactions in humans; commercialization of the peas was therefore cancelled.
5. This type of subtle but dangerous change in the GM protein would rarely, if ever, be detected in the safety assessments typically used to approve GM crops.

转基因豌豆在小鼠中产生过敏型炎症反应 – 在通常的转基因作物评估中,通过转基因豌豆生产的蛋白质在小鼠中产生了危险的免疫反应。当在豆类中天然产生时,“相同”的蛋白质没有如此的影响效果。转基因豌豆产生微量的,难以检测的差异的,糖分子附着于蛋白质的方式,这可能导致问题。小鼠的反应表明转基因豌豆可能引起人类的炎症或过敏反应; 因此该豌豆的商业化被取消。

1.19 Eyewitness reports: Animals avoid GMOs
1. When given a choice, several animals avoided eating GM food.
2. In farmer-run tests, cows and pigs repeatedly passed up GM corn.
3. Animals that avoided GM food include cows, pigs, geese, squirrels, elk, deer, raccoons, mice and rats.

目击者报告:动物避免转基因生物 – 当选择食物时,几种动物会避免吃转基因食物。在农民试验中,牛和猪多次避免吃转基因玉米。- 避免转基因食品的动物包括牛,猪,鹅,松鼠,麋鹿,鹿,浣熊,小鼠和老鼠。

1.20 A GM food supplement killed about 100 people and caused 5,000-10,000 to fall sick
1. One brand of the supplement L-tryptophan created a deadly US epidemic in the 1980s
2. The company genetically engineered bacteria to produce the supplement more economically.
3. Their product contained many contaminants, five or six of which were suspected as the cause of the disease.
4. Discovering the epidemic required multiple coincidences, suggesting that adverse reactions to GM foods may be hard to identify.

转基因食品补充剂杀死了约100人,造成5000-10,000人生病 – 补充L-色氨酸的一个品牌在20世纪80年代造成了美国的致命流行病。 该公司使用基因工程改造过的细菌更经济地生产L-色氨酸。 他们的产品含有许多污染物,其中五六个被怀疑是该疾病的原因。
发现疫情需要多次巧合,这表明对转基因食品的不良反应通常可能难以识别。

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