Keto diets linked to heart risks, cancer risk, dangers to pregnant women and kidney patients 酮飲食與心髒病風險、癌症風險、對孕婦和腎臟患者的危險有關

Editor’s note:  Ketogenic diet is often used to help fight cancer, particularly brain cancer, and also help weight loss.  However, it is not 100% certain if this diet is sustainable for a long term.  The obvious defect of this diet for most people is a nutritional instance.   Also the definition of ketogenic diet may vary from one person to another.

The therapeutic ketogenic diet promoted by some individuals and organizations do not include much plant-based foods.  They focus on protein/fat and only a very small amount of carbohydrate.  But some people actually also include a lot of low calorie plant-based foods which are rich in fiber and vitamins.  Note that a keto diet users should use sufficient amounts of vitamins/supplements to help avoid nutrition deficiencies of sorts.

In some cases, ket diet is effective at treating certain cancers, and boosting weight loss.  (Carbohydrates, particularly sugars and inflammatory cooking oil can be significant factors for weight gain and cancer development.

編者按:生酮飲食通常用於幫助對抗癌症,尤其是腦癌,還有助於減肥。然而,並不能 100% 確定這種飲食是否可以長期持續。對於大多數人來說,與這種飲食相關的明顯缺陷是營養實例。此外,生酮飲食的定義可能因人而異。

一些個人和組織提倡的治療性生酮飲食不包括太多植物性食物。他們專注於蛋白質/脂肪和非常少量的碳水化合物。但有些人實際上還包括許多富含纖維和維生素的低熱量植物性食物。請注意,酮飲食使用者應使用足夠量的維生素/補充劑來幫助解決各種嚴重的營養缺乏症。

在某些情況下,生酮飲食可有效治療某些癌症和促進體重減輕。 (碳水化合物,尤其是糖和炎症性食用油可能是體重增加和癌症發展的重要因素。

3-Aug-2021

Most comprehensive review yet of keto diets finds heart risks, cancer risk, dangers to pregnant women and kidney patients

Peer-Reviewed Publication

Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine

WASHINGTON—In the most comprehensive analysis yet of ketogenic (keto) diets, a review in Frontiers in Nutrition finds keto diets place pregnant women and kidney disease patients at risk of adverse health effects. The review, Ketogenic Diets and Chronic Disease: Weighing the Benefits Against the Risks, also found that for most people, the possible long-term risks of the keto diet, including heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease, outweigh its possible benefits.

“The typical keto diet is a disease-promoting disaster,” says lead review author Lee Crosby, RD, nutrition education program manager at Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. “Loading up on red meat, processed meat, and saturated fat and restricting carbohydrate-rich vegetables, fruits, legumes, and whole grains is a recipe for bad health.”

Five key findings of the Frontiers in Nutrition review paper are:

  1. Keto diets may be especially unsafe for women who are pregnant or may become pregnant—low-carb diets are linked to a higher risk of neural tube defects in the baby, even when women take folic acid.
  2. Higher-protein keto diets could hasten kidney failure in those with kidney disease.
  3. Keto diets raise “bad cholesterol” levels for many patients.
  4. Keto diets are presented as a panacea, but they are not likely to be safe long term.
  5. Restricting carbohydrate skews the diet toward cancer-causing foods. In fact, typical keto foods have been linked to an increased risk of heart diseasecancerdiabetes, and Alzheimer’s—often the very diseases they are touted to help.

The term “ketogenic diet” generally refers to a diet that is very low in carbohydrate, modest in protein, and high in fat. This mix of fuels aims to induce ketosis, or the production of ketone bodies that serve as an alternate energy source for neurons and other cell types that cannot directly metabolize fatty acids.

Keto diets have been promoted for weight loss and, less commonly, for other health reasons—seizure disorders, obesity and weight management, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, kidney health, and prepregnancy and pregnancy—all of which were considered in this review. It also looked at potential long-term effects on health.

“In addition to the significant risks to kidney disease patients and pregnant women, keto diets are risky for others, too, as these diets can increase LDL cholesterol levels and may increase overall chronic disease risk,” Crosby explains. “While keto can reduce body weight short term, this approach is not more effective than other weight-loss diets.”

Researchers found that the only well-supported use for this dietary approach is to reduce seizure frequency in some individuals with drug-resistant epilepsy.

Crosby conducted the review with colleagues from New York University’s Grossman School of Medicine; New York City Health and Hospital at Bellevue; University of Pennsylvania; Loma Linda University; and George Washington University School of Medicine.

Founded in 1985, the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine is a nonprofit organization that promotes preventive medicine, conducts clinical research, and encourages higher standards for ethics and effectiveness in education and research.

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